Acta Scientific Neurology (ASNE) (ISSN: 2582-1121)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 11

Screening for Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

Lucicleia Nascimento Santos, Julie Cristine Santos da Silva and Rafael Menezes-Reis

Federal University of Amazonas, Institute of Health and Biotechnology, Brazil

*Corresponding Author: Rafael Menezes-Reis, Federal University of Amazonas, Institute of Health and Biotechnology, Brazil.

Received: July 28, 2022; Published: October 04, 2022


Introduction: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non-gradual brain disease, caused by damage to the brain, resulting in permanent motor impairment. Vertebral deformity in a patient with CP has a multifactorial cause, muscle weakness, spasticity and inefficient muscle control. The aim of this study was to perform a screening of neuromuscular scoliosis in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

Methods: A prospective, observational and cross-sectional study, where children with CP and healthy aged 3 to 15 years were evaluated. The trunk rotation angle (ATR) of children with cerebral palsy was measured using the Scoliometer app on cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine regions. The Early Clinical Assessment of Balance (ECAB) was also applied to assess trunk balance.

Results: Thirteen children diagnosed with cerebral palsy were evaluated. Four children were able to move independently (functional group) and nine children were functionally incapacitate (non-functional group). The ATR of functional CP children were 5.25 ± 2.0 (cervical), 10.25 ± 2.1 (thoracic), 4.75 ± 2.1 (lumbar) and 10.25 ± 2.1 (highest ATR). The ATR of non-functional CP children were 5.88 ± 3.4 (cervical), 14.33 ± 9.9 (thoracic), 14.89 ± 10.3 (lumbar) and 16.13 ± 10.5 (highest ATR). The trunk balance were 38.63 ± 3.6 (functional group) and 18.11 ± 12.2 (non-functional group). Healthy children presents ATR = 13.08 ± 8.4 (highest ATR).

Conclusions: All children with CP had ATR > 7°. Non-functional group have a significant higher lumbar angle of trunk rotation (p = 0.01) and worse trunk balance than functional children with CP (p = 0.0009). Children with CP had a significant higher ATR than healthy children (p < 0.0001).

Keywords: Scoliosis; Cerebral Palsy; Chronic; Trunk; Spine; Diagnosis


  1. Schifrin BS and Longo LD. “William John Little and cerebral palsy. A reappraisal”. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2 (2000): 139-144.
  2. Oliveira LS and Ortega MO. “Technique to reduce tonus and passive muscle stretching: effects on range of motion in children with spastic cerebral palsy”. ABCS Health Sciences 1 (2017): 27-33.
  3. Himmelmann K., et al. “Risk factors for cerebral palsy in children born at term”. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 10 (2011): 1070-1081.
  4. Pereira HV. Paralisia cerebral”. Pediatric Residency 1 (2018): 49-55.
  5. Gomes GC., et al. “Rede de apoio social da família para o cuidado da criança com paralisia cerebral”. Revista Enfermagem UERJ 27 (2019): 1-6.
  6. Bobath K. “A deficiência motora em pacientes com paralisia cerebral”. Petrópolis; Vozes 91 (1969).
  7. Souza AMC. “Prognóstico Funcional da Encefalopatia crônica não progressiva In: Ferraretto I. (coord.). Encefalopatia crônica não progressiva: aspectos práticos”. São Paulo: Memnon (1998): 33-37.
  8. Chagas PSC., et al. “Classificação da função motora e do desempenho funcional de crianças com paralisia cerebral”. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy5 (2008): 409-416.
  9. Schwartzman JS. “Revisão: Encefalopatia crônica não progressiva”. Arquivos Brasileiros de Encefalopatia Crônica Não Progressiva 1 (2004): 6-17.
  10. Smania N., et al. “Neurophysiological basis of rehabilitation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis”. Disability and Rehabilitation 10 (2008): 763-771.
  11. Reamy BV and Slakey JB. “Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: review and current concepts”. American Family Physician 1 (2001): 111-116.
  12. Helenius IJ., et al. “Cerebral palsy with dislocated hip and scoliosis: what to deal with first?” Journal of Children's Orthopaedics 1 (2020): 24-29.
  13. Saito N., et al. “Natural history of scoliosis in spastic cerebral palsy”. Lancet 9117 (1998): 1687-1692.
  14. Ágústsson A., et al. “O efeito de flexão limitada assimétrica do quadril na postura sentada, escoliose e distorção do quadril varrida pelo vento”. Research in Developmental Disabilities 71 (2017): 18-23.
  15. I Tsirikos A. “Development and treatment of spinal deformity in patients with cerebral palsy”. Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 2 (2010): 148-158.
  16. Imrie MN and Yaszay B. “Management of spinal deformity in cerebral palsy”. Orthopedic Clinics of North America 4 (2010): 531-547.
  17. Kotwicki T and Jozwiak M. “Conservative management of neuromuscular scoliosis: personal experience and review of literature”. Disability and Rehabilitation 10 (2008): 792-798.
  18. Penha PJ., et al. “Prevalence of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil”. Spine (Phila Pa 1976)24 (2018): 1710-1718.
  19. Majnemer A SM., et al. “Developmental and functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy as related to pattern and level of motor function”. Journal of Child Neurology10 (2010): 1236-1241.
  20. Lemos LFC., et al. “Equilíbrio postural: correlações com desempenho motor e variáveis antropométricas em crianças de 4 a 10 anos de idade”. Saúde e Desenvolvimento Humano1 (2016).
  21. Bax M., et al. “Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy”. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology8 (2005): 571-576.
  22. Cunha AB., et al. “Relação entre alinhamento postural e desempenho motor em crianças com paralisia cerebral”. Fisioterapia e Pesquisa1 (2009): 22-27.
  23. Prudente COM., et al. “Relation Between Quality of Life of Mothers of Children With Cerebral Palsy and the Children's Motor Functioning, After Ten Months of Rehabilitation”. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem2 (2010).
  24. Mancini MC., et al. “Comparação do desempenho de atividades funcionais em crianças com desenvolvimento normal e crianças com paralisa cerebral”. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria 2 (2002): 446-452.
  25. Marques NR., et al. “Características biomecânicas, ergonômicas e clínicas da postura sentada: uma revisão”. Fisioterapia e Pesquisa3 (2010): 270-276.
  26. Hadders-Algra M. “Development of postural control during the first 18 months of life”. Neural Plasticity2-3 (2005): 99-108.
  27. Woollacott M., et al. “Effect of balance training on muscle activity used in recovery of stability in children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study”. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 47 (2005): 455-461.


Citation: Rafael Menezes-Reis., et al. “Screening for Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study". Acta Scientific Neurology 5.11 (2022): 03-09.


Copyright: © 2022 Rafael Menezes-Reis., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US