Acta Scientific Neurology (ASNE) (ISSN: 2582-1121)

Short Communication Volume 3 Issue 11

Does Estrogen Therapy Prevent Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease?

Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith*

Department of Biochemistry, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences, Amala Nagar, Kerala, India

*Corresponding Author: Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith, Professor of Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences, Amala Nagar, Kerala, India.

Received: September 29, 2020; Published: October 22, 2020


  Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington’s disease remain a major challenge to human. Among the neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease are two major forms. According to the recent survey in US, more than 5.5 million (age 65 or older) people have dementia caused by Alzheimer’s and remain the 5th leading cause of death among the elders. World Health Organization (WHO) expected ~ 16.2% prevalence of AD among people over 65 years worldwide by 2050.



  1. Murphy MP and Vine HL. “Alzheimer’s Disease and the β-Amyloid Peptide”. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 19 (2010): 31.
  2. Farris W., et al. “Insulin-degrading enzyme regulates the levels of insulin, amyloid beta-protein, and the beta-amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain In vivo”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 (2003): 4162-4167.
  3. Qiu WQ and Folstein MF. “Insulin, insulin-degrading enzyme and amyloid-beta peptide in Alzheimer’s disease: review and hypothesis”. Neurobiology of Aging 27 (2006): 190-198.
  4. Caccamo A., et al. “Age- and region-dependent alterations in Abeta-degrading enzymes: implications for Abeta-induced disorders”. Neurobiology of Aging 26 (2005): 645-654.
  5. Ajith TA and Padmajanair G. “Mitochondrial pharmaceutics: A new therapeutic strategy to ameliorate oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease”. Current Aging Science 8 (2015): 235-240.
  6. Stephenson J., et al. “Inflammation in CNS neurodegenerative diseases”. Immunology 154 (2018): 204-219.
  7. Eichenbaum H. “A cortical-Hippocampal system for declarative memory”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 1 (2000): 41-50.
  8. Warren MP and Halpert S. “Hormone replacement therapy: controversies, pros and cons”. Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 18 (2004): 317-332.
  9. Prokai L., et al. “Quinol-based cyclic antioxidant mechanism in estrogen neuroprotection”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 (2003): 11741-11746.
  10. Petrovic S., et al. “Estradiol affects calcium transport across mitochondrial membrane in different brain regions”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1048 (2005): 341-343.
  11. Sribnick EA., et al. “17beta-estradiol attenuates glutamate-induced apoptosis and preserves electrophysiologic function in primary cortical neurons”. Journal of Neuroscience Research 76 (2004): 688-696.
  12. Zhao L., et al. “17beta-Estradiol regulates insulin-degrading enzyme expression via an ERbeta/PI3-K pathway in hippocampus: relevance to Alzheimer's prevention”. Neurobiology of Aging 32 (2011): 1949-1963.
  13. Viña J and Lloret A. “Why women have more Alzheimer's disease than men: gender and mitochondrial toxicity of amyloid-beta peptide”. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 20 (2010): S527-S533.
  14. Wang L., et al. “Estrogen receptor (ER)beta knockout mice reveal a role for ERbeta in migration of cortical neurons in the developing brain”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 (2003): 703-708.
  15. Zhao L., et al. “17β-Estradiol regulates insulin-degrading enzyme expression via an ERβ/PI3-K pathway in hippocampus: relevance to Alzheimer’s prevention”. Neurobiology of Aging 32 (2011): 1949-1963.
  16. “Alzheimer's Disease and Aging: Therapeutic Potential of Estrogen”. Clinical Trials Identifier
  17. Henderson V., et al. “Prior use of hormone therapy and incident Alzheimer’s disease in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study”. The American Academy of Neurology S31 (2007): 4.
  18. Imtiaz B., et al. “Risk of Alzheimer's disease among users of postmenopausal hormone therapy: A nationwide case-control study”. Maturitas 98 (2017): 7-13.
  19. Mikkola TS., et al. “Lower Death Risk for Vascular Dementia Than for Alzheimer's Disease With Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Users”. Metab 102 (2017): 870-877.
  20. Savolainen-Peltonen H., et al. “Use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of Alzheimer's disease in Finland: nationwide case-control study”. British Medical Journal 364 (2019): l665.
  21. Schierbeck LL., et al. “Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular events in recently postmenopausal women: randomised trial”. British Medical Journal 345 (2012): e6409.
  22. Gialeraki A., et al. “Oral Contraceptives and HRT Risk of Thrombosis”. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 24 (2018): 217-225.
  23. Bhavnani BR., et al. “Pharmacology of Conjugated Equine Estrogens: Efficacy, Safety and Mechanism of Action”. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 142 (2014): 16-29.


Citation: Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan Ajith. “Does Estrogen Therapy Prevent Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease?". Acta Scientific Neurology 3.11 (2020): 34-36.


Acceptance rate32%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 20, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US