Department of Communication Disorders, College of Education, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Nebraska, United States
*Corresponding Author: Ladan Ghazi-Saidi, Department of Communication Disorders, College of Education, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Nebraska, United States.
Received: February 26, 2020; Published: March 30, 2020
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Although it is classically defined by motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms including cognitive impairment (CI) are often even more disabling for patients. CI may happen in one or multiple cognitive domains, resulting in diverse profiles. Executive dysfunction and visuospatial impairment are two prominent and early cognitive symptoms. Visuospatial deficits are typically associated with atrophy in the parieto-temporal or parieto-frontal areas, precuneus, and hippocampus that may progress to dementia. Executive dysfunction in PD is typically associated with atrophy in the frontal (especially superior frontal gyrus) and parietal areas (especially temporoparietal areas), as well as white matter, changes cingulum, and parieto-frontal areas.
Keywords: Parkinson’s Disease; Executive Function; Visuospatial; Cognitive Impairment; Cortico-Subcortical Circuits; Neurotransmitter; Dopamine; Norepinephrine; Freezing of Gait
Citation: Ladan Ghazi-Saidi. “Visuospatial and Executive Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease: A Review". Acta Scientific Neurology 3.4 (2020): 08-26.
Copyright: © 2020 Ladan Ghazi-Saidi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.