Mahsa R M Mansouri1 and Sivakumar J T Gowder2*
1The Faculty of Sports Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran
2Department of Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
*Corresponding Author: Sivakumar J T Gowder, Department of Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Received: January 18, 2020; Published: January 29, 2020
Physical activity or physical exercise act against the sedentary lifestyle-induced health matters such as cognitive decline or neurodegenerative diseases. Physical exercise and physical activity is important for people of all age groups that not only could enhance mental capacity and social interactions development of pre-school aged children, but also could maintain and ameliorate muscle strengthening and health condition such as high blood pressure of old adults. Physical exercise also, acts as gene modulator which develops brain function due to structural and functional changes such as neurogenesis, glycogenesis, brain volumes, white matter integrity, neurotrophies levels and or cognitive performance [1,2].
Physical exercise conveys protective effects against cognitive functions and structures that decline especially of cognitive functions that relay on experiences (e.g. memory) . Physical exercises also cause biological effects such as hippocampal neuroplasticity, prevention of hippocampal volume atrophy, increase grey matter volume in frontal and hippocampal region, and reduce damage in grey matter. It has been shown that physical exercise-induced cardiovascular fitness and increased blood flow lead to positive changes in hippocampus volume and causes better memory scores and enhances cognitive function in both young and older adults. Moreover, physically active children act much better on perceptual and verbal test while comparing to sedentary children at the same age. Physical exercise directly affects synaptic structure and enhances synaptic plasticity in hippocampus and facilitates spatial learning. In response to physical exercise, long-term potentiation (LTP) cause long-lasting increase in signal transmission and considered as physiologic base for learning. LTP is usually accompanied by increase of dendrite length and complexity. Physical exercise has an influence on hippocampus neurogenesis proliferation and function of nerve system which in turn influence LTP and memory formation .
Citation: Mahsa R M Mansouri and Sivakumar J T Gowder. “Critical Evaluation of Physical Exercise on Brain Structure and Function".Acta Scientific Neurology 3.2 (2020): 01-02.
Copyright: © 2020 Mahsa R M Mansouri and Sivakumar J T Gowder. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.