Acta Scientific Microbiology

Research Article Volume 7 Issue 6

Prevalence of Fluoroquinolone Resistant Enteric Bacteria in Households’ Domestic Kitchen Environment in a Nigerian Urban Setting

Bernard O. Ejechi1*, Olivia S. Egbule1, Osereme Egbele1 and Obaro L. Oyubu2

1Department of Microbiology, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria
2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Bernard O. Ejechi, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

Received: April 26, 2024; Published: May 18, 2024

Abstract

The investigation was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistant enteric bacteria in domestic kitchens in an urban environment. Warri town in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was the urban settlement used. A multi-stage technique with central Warri and 2 bordering localities as primary stages and 20 randomly selected domestic kitchens/primary area as secondary stages was adopted. The swab-rinse method was used to collect samples from floors, plates and utensils in the kitchens and used to inoculate Nutrient agar for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), and MacConkey and Deoxycholate Citrate agar for isolating enteric bacteria (EB). Susceptibility of EB to 3 FQs, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Levofloxacin was determined by the agar disc diffusion technique while plasmid curing was by the sodium dodecyl sulphate method. HPC was high (4.31 ± 0.34-4.79 ± 0.22 log cfu/cm2) thereby indicating a “fertile ground” for the growth of EB. The EB identified were Enterobacter, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella and Citrobacter with variations in the number of isolates (28-48 isolates). Prevalence of resistance to FQs were high; it varied with isolates and kitchen sources and it stood at 35.7-71.1, 30.0-73.7, and 30.0-76.5% for Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and, Levofloxacin, respectively. Prevalence of resistance to the FQs was associated with kitchen sources of EB (X2 = 25.18; P = 0.000). Although with low prevalence (3.4-22.2%), plasmid-mediated FQ resistance occurred with a tendency to be higher in Salmonella and Shigella. Thus domestic kitchens can be vulnerable to ingress of FQ resistant bacteria with consequences of horizontal transfer and therapeutic problems with diarrhoeal infections.

Keywords: Enteric Bacteria; Fluoroquinolones; Domestic Kitchens; Antimicrobial Resistance

References

  1. Kibwana UO., et al. “Fluoroquinolone resistance among fecal extended spectrum βeta lactamases positive Enterobacterales isolates from children in Dares Salaam, Tanzania”. BMC Infectious Diseases 23 (2023): 135.
  2. Tang K and Zhao H. “Quinolone Antibiotics: Resistance and Therapy”. Infection and Drug Resistance 16 (2023): 811-820.
  3. Dalhoff A. “Global fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology and implications for clinical use”. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases (2012):
  4. Das T., et al. “High prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from chickens, humans and the environment: An emerging one health issue”. PLoS ONE11 (2023): e0294043.
  5. Poirel L., et al. “Plasmid-Mediated quinolone resistance; interactions between human, animal, and environmentalecologies”. Frontiers in Microbiology 3 (2012):
  6. Correia S., et al. “Mechanisms of quinolone action and resistance: where do we stand?” Journal of Medical Microbiology 66 (2017): 551-559.
  7. Acar JF and Francoual S. “The clinical problems of bacterial resistance to the new quinolones”. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 26 (1990): 207-213.
  8. Acar JF and Goldstein FW. “Trends in bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 24 (1997): S67-73.
  9. Redgrave LS., et al. “Fluoroquinolone resistance: mechanisms, impact on bacteria, and role in evolutionary success”. Trends in Microbiology 8 (2014): 438-445.
  10. Peirano G and Pitout JDD. “Fluoroquinolone-resistant escherichia coli sequence type 131 isolates causing bloodstream infections in a Canadian region with a centralized laboratory system: rapid emergence of the H30-RX sublineage”. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy 58 (2014): 2699-2703.
  11. Salah FD., et al. “Distribution of quinolone resistance gene (qnr) in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella in Lome. Togo”. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 8 (2019): 104.
  12. Yang C., et al. “Resistance in enteric Shigella and nontyphoidal Salmonella: emerging concepts”. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 5 (2023): 360-365.
  13. Acheampong G., et al. “Chromosomal and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance in human Salmonella enterica infection in Ghana”. BMC Infectious Diseases 19 (2019):
  14. Cui M., et al. “Prevalence and characterization of fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella isolated from an integrated broiler chicken supply chain”. Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019):
  15. Umeda K., et al. “Prevalence and mechanisms of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli among sheltered companion animals”. Access Microbiology 2 (2020): 15-21.
  16. Osińska A., et al. “Prevalence of plasmid-mediated multidrug resistance determinants in fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria isolated from sewage and surface water”. Environmental Science Pollution Research 23 (2016): 10818-10831.
  17. Tyson GH., et al. “Diverse Fluoroquinolone Resistance Plasmids From Retail Meat E. coli in the United States”. Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019): 2826.
  18. Ejechi BO and Ochei PO. “Bacteriological safety assessment, hygienic habits and cross-contamination risks in a Nigerian urban sample of household kitchen environment”. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 189.6 (2017): 298-212.
  19. Evans EW and Redmond EC. “Domestic kitchen microbiological contamination and self-reported food hygiene practices of older adult consumers”. Journal of Food Protection8 (2019): 1326-1335.
  20. Boadi K., et al. “Urbanization without development: Environmental and health implications in African cities”. Environment, Development and Sustainability 7 (2005): 465-500.
  21. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. CLSI Approved Standard M100-S15. 2018; Wayne, Clinical and laboratory Standards Institute (2018).
  22. Amri E and Juma S. “Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and qualitative phytochemical screening of solvent extracts of Dalbergia melanoxylon (Guill. and Perr)”. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science 70 (2016): 412-423.
  23. Egbule OS and Yusuf I. “Multiple antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from cattle and poultry faeces in Abraka, south- south Nigeria”. Tropical Agricultural Science 2 (2019): 585-594.
  24. Egbule OS. “Occurrence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases and sul 1 in multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from poultry feeds”. Scientific African 18 (2022):
  25. Mendonca A., et al. “Microbiological considerations in food safety and quality systems implementation”. In: Gordon, A. (editor) Food Safety and Quality Systems in Developing Countries. London: Academic Press; (2020): 185-260.
  26. Flores GE., et al. “Diversity, distribution and sources of bacteria in residential kitchens”. Environmental Microbiology2 (2013): 588-596.
  27. Borrusso PA and Quinlar J. “Prevalence of Pathogens and Indicator Organisms in home kitchens and correlation with unsafe food handling practices and conditions”. Journal of Food Protection4 (2017): 590-597.
  28. Getie M., et al. “Prevalence of enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among food handlers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia”. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 8 (2019):
  29. AL-Aejroosh HA., et al. “Heavy microbial load in the work environment, utensils and surfaces of domestic kitchens”. Journal of Biological Sciences 1 (2021): 38-44.
  30. Cantrell ME., et al. “Hands are frequently contaminated with fecal bacteria and enteric pathogens globally: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. ACS Environmental Au 3 (2023): 123−134.
  31. Amin M B., et al. “High prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) among E. coli from aquatic environments in Bangladesh”. PLoS ONE 12 (2021): e0261970.
  32. Ehwarieme DA., et al. “Occurrence of plasmid mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genes amongst enteric bacteria isolated from human and animal sources in Delta State, Nigeria”. AIMS Microbiology 7.1 (2021): 75-95.
  33. Yah C S. “Plasmid-encoded multidrug resistance: A case study of Salmonella and Shigella from enteric diarrhea sources among humans”. Biological Research 43 (2010): 141-148.
  34. Yang P., et al. “Association between the rate of fluoroquinolones-resistant gram-negative bacteria and antibiotic consumption from China based on 145 tertiary hospitals data in 2014”. BMC Infectious Diseases 20 (2020).
  35. Akinyemi K., et al. “Typhoid fever: tracking the trend in Nigeria”. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene3 (2018): 41-47.

Citation

Citation: Bernard O. Ejechi., et al. “Prevalence of Fluoroquinolone Resistant Enteric Bacteria in Households’ Domestic Kitchen Environment in a Nigerian Urban Setting".Acta Scientific Microbiology 7.6 (2024): 17-24.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2024 Bernard O. Ejechi., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In






News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US