Acta Scientific Microbiology

Editorial Volume 7 Issue 5

Prophylactic Protection Against COVID-19 By ACE-2-Expressing-Lung Exosomes Inhalation

Attapon Cheepsattayakorn1-4*, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn5 and Porntep Siriwanarangsun2

1Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok, Thailand
2Faculty of Medicine, Western University, Pathumtani Province, Thailand
310th Zonal Tuberculosis and Chest Disease Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand
4Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand
5Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

*Corresponding Author: Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, 10th Zonal Tuberculosis and Chest Disease Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Received: March 27, 2024; Published: April 01, 2024

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 infectivity depends on binding its S protein with the entry-receptor “ hACE-2” a promising strategic treatment, therefore, is this interaction inhibition [1-3]. Some SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.617.2 (Delta), and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variants were highly resistant to mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced humoral immunity or BNT162b2 [4-6]. A recent study demonstrated that in a female mouse model, inhalation of ACE-2-expressing-human-lung-spheroid-cells (LSC)-derived exosomes (LSC-Exo) (Figure 1) could protect the host throughout the whole lung by biodistribution and deposition against COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by SARS-CoV-2 binding, blocking the interaction of host cells with SARS-CoV-2, and virus neutralization both in vitro and in vivo [7]. This study also revealed decrease of viral loads and protection of SARS-CoV-2-induced disease [7]. Three different types of inhalation devices are commonly used; jet, ultrasonic, and vibrating mesh (all are nebulizer) (Figure 2) [8]. In non-human primates and rats studies, when nebulized with eFlow, human immunoglobulin preparations were deposited into the airways as well as treated-lung alveoli [9]. VR942, an anti-interleukin (IL)-13 mAb is a first-in-class for dry-powder inhalers (DPIs)

References

  1. Lan J. “Structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain bound to the ACE-2 receptor”. Nature 581 (2020): 215-220.
  2. Huang X., et al. “Nanotechnology-based strategies against SARS-CoV-2 variants”. Nature Nanotechnology 17 (2022): 1027-1037.
  3. Zhang L., et al. “An ACE-2 decoy can be administered by inhalation and potently targets omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2”. EMBO Molecular Medicine 14 (2022): e16109.
  4. Garcia-Beltran WF., et al. “Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants escape neutralization by vaccine-induced humoral immunity”. Cell 184 (2021): 2372-2383.e2379.
  5. Pouwels KB., et al. “Effect of Delta variant on viral burden and vaccine effectiveness against new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the UK”. Nature Medicine 27 (2021): 2127-2135.
  6. Hui KPY., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant replication in human bronchus and lung ex vivo”. Nature 603 (2022): 715-720.
  7. Wang Z., et al. “Inhalation of ACE-2-expressing lung exosomes provides prophylactic protection against SARS-CoV-2”. Nature Communications 15 (2024): 2236.
  8. Moroni-Zengraf P., et al. “Inhalation devices”. Canadian Respiratory Journal (2018): 5642074.
  9. Vonarburg C., et al. “Topical application of nebulized human IgG, IgA, and IgAM in the lungs of rats and non-human primates”. Respiratory Research 1 (2019): 99.
  10. Burgess G., et al. “Randomized study of the safety and pharmacodynamics of inhaled interleukin-13 monoclonal antibody fragment VR942”. EBioMedicine 35 (2018): 67-75.

Citation

Citation: Attapon Cheepsattayakorn., et al. “Prophylactic Protection Against COVID-19 By ACE-2-Expressing-Lung Exosomes Inhalation".Acta Scientific Microbiology 7.5 (2024): 01-03.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2024 Attapon Cheepsattayakorn., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




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