Acta Scientific Microbiology

Research Article Volume 7 Issue 4

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Different Areas of Pakistan

Rafia Tabassum1*, Ansar Zubair2, Kashaf Zehra3, Fatima Arshad4, Tanzila Ghauri2, Asma Abdul Latif1, Mateen Arshad1 and Najma Ghani1

1Department of Zoology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of the Education, Lahore, Pakistan
3Centre for Clinical Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
4Department of Life Sciences. University of Management and technology, Lahore, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author: Rafia Tabassum, Department of Zoology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan.

Received: March 05, 2024; Published: March 20, 2024

Abstract

Background: Parasites are organisms that feed and shelter on other species. The majority of individuals carry a variety of parasites, including helminths and protozoans. Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii is a major protozoan infection in tropical and sub-tropical climates, as well as in Pakistan. This parasite infects humans and most other warm-blooded animals, but the felid family is its main host. It is anticipated to infect one-third of the world’s population.

Material and Methodology: Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis was investigated in local populations of Lahore, Faisalabad and Mardan, Pakistan. The interviews were used for the questioner survey, while serological investigation was done using ELISA technique. About 360 samples were selected randomly for the detection of toxoplasma gondii antibodies.

Results: Immunoglobulin IgG antibodies were used to detect past parasite infection by using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit (ELISA). Gender, age, socio- demographic and associated factors were all used to characterize these samples. The samples for seroprevalence analysis were chosen randomly. A total of 169 people were found seropositive for this infection having the prevalence of 46.9%. Males were found with a high percentage prevalence of (20%) followed by females (17%) and children (9.7%).

Conclusion: This study has revealed that males were exposed to toxoplasmosis at a higher rate than females and children.

Recommendation: Contact with the soil and dirt should be avoided to reduce the risk of toxoplasmosis from the environment. The report suggests that more research be conducted nationwide utilizing various hematological and biochemical parameters.

Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii; ELIZA; Toxoplasmosis

References

  1. Armstrong L., et al. “Severe neonatal Toxoplasmosis after third trimester maternal infection”. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal 23 (2004): 968-969.
  2. Bajwa AA., et al. “Toxoplasmosis a global threat to all vertebrates: trends in diagnostic methods”. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 3 (2014): 676-684.
  3. Scott PR., et al. “The potential for improving welfare standards and productivity in United Kingdom sheep flocks using veterinary flock health plans”. Veterinary Journal 173 (2007): 522-531.
  4. Shoukat T., et al. “Epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis among the Pakistani population: A systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”. Pathogens 6 (2022): 675.
  5. Qureshi AAR., et al. “Seroepidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the human population in the Eastern region”. Saudi, Medical Journal 22 (2001): 13-18.
  6. Udonsom, R., et al. “Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibody in Vietnamese villagers, Southeast Asian”. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 39 (2008): 14-18.
  7. Esquivel AC., et al. “Seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Durango, Mexico”. Journal of Parasitology 95 (2009): 271-274.
  8. Dubey JP. “Toxoplasmosis in pigs--the last 20 years”. Veterinary Parasitology 164 (2009): 89-103.
  9. Mwambe B., et al. “Seroprevalence and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Mwanza, Tanzania”. Parasites and Vectors 6 (2013): 22.
  10. Hayat S., et al. “Seroprevalence of human toxoplasmosis in kallarwali village of district muzaffar garh, Pakistan”. Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences 12 (2014): 129-132.
  11. Iqbal J. and Khalid N. “Detection of acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in early pregnancy by IgG avidity and PCR analysis”. Journal of Medical and Microbiology 56 (2007): 1495-1514.
  12. Splading SM., et al. “Serological screening and toxoplasmosis exposure factors among pregnant women in south of Brazil”. Revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropica 38 (2005): 172-177.
  13. Nimri L., et al. “Detection of Toxoplasma gondii specific antibodies in high risk pregnant women”. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 71 (2004): 831-835.
  14. Opsteegh M., et al. “Age-Related Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Dutch Wild Boar Inconsistent with Lifelong Persistence of Antibodies”. PLoS ONE 6 (2011): 16-20.
  15. Henriquez SA., et al. “Neuropsychiatric disease and Toxoplasma gondii infection”. Neuroimmunomodulation 2 (2009): 122-133.
  16. Tenter AM., et al. “Toxoplasma gondii from animals to humans”. International Journal of Parasitology 30 (2000): 1217-1250.
  17. Dhumne M., et al. “National seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in India”. Journal of Parasitology 6 (2007): 1520-1521.
  18. El-Sheikh HM., et al. “Seroprevalence of and risk factors for T. gondii antibodies among asymptomatic blood donors in Egypt”. Parasitology 104 (2009): 1471-1476.
  19. Shimeles T., et al. “Seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV un-infected people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A comparative cross-sectional study”. BMC Research Notes 2 (2009): 213.
  20. Salman YJ., et al. “Watching of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among peoples in Kirkuk Province from1993 to 2012 by using different serological tests”. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 3 (2014): 88189.
  21. Cong W., et al. “Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women: A Seroprevalence and Case Control Study in Eastern China”. BioMed Research International (2015): 6.

Citation

Citation: Rafia Tabassum., et al. “Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Different Areas of Pakistan".Acta Scientific Microbiology 7.4 (2024): 18-23.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2024 Rafia Tabassum., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In






News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US