Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 12

HFMD is a Common Viral Illness that Causes a Rash on the Hands, Foot, and Mouth

Abdulaziz Radhi S Aljohni1*, Bandar Saud Alenzi2, Tariq Ibrahim Alhazmy3, Obaid Ali Alharbi3, Waleed Dhayab Almatrfi4, Ghazi Khali1 Suliman Alqouzi5, Fahd Omar Almhmodi6 and Marwan Masadaljohani7

1Ph.D. Microbiology, Department of Laboratory at King Fahad Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia
2Medical Laboratory Technology, Department of Laboratory at King Fahad Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia
3MSc Senior Specialist, Laboratory Histopathology Department at Medicine Centre, Madina, Saudi Arabia
4Technician Laboratory Department at Medicine Centre, Madina, Saudi Arabia
5MSc Laboratory Histopathology at Al-Qunfudhah Health Regional Laboratory, Saudi Arabia
6Medical Laboratory Technology, Al-Qunfudhah Health Regional Laboratory, Saudi Arabia
7Senior Pharmacists Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madina, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding Author: Abdulaziz Radhi S Aljohni, Ph.D. Microbiology, Department of Laboratory at King Fahad Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia.

Received: November 06, 2023; Published: November 22, 2023

Abstract

The condition caused by a virus and referred to as "hand, foot, and mouth disease" (HFMD) mostly affects children less than 5 years old. Although the occurrence of this phenomenon is possible among adults, the probability of its manifestation is significantly diminished. Multiple enteroviruses have been suspected of playing a role in the development of HFMD in humans. Poliovirus is a family of viruses that includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, rhinoviruses, and other enteroviruses. Viruses belonging to this particular family have the potential to induce pathogenic conditions in human hosts.
Most cases of HFMD are brought on by enterovirus type A (HEV-A), in particular enterovirus 71 (EV-71), which is the virus responsible for the majority of HFMD cases across the globe. Other frequent causes include the enteroviruses coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), coxsackievirus A5 (CVA5), and coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10). In the United States, HFMD is most often brought on by a CVA16. When a person has HFMD, they will often begin to feel better on their own within seven to ten days. Although they are uncommon, complications are not impossible to have. When coxsackieviruses are identified as the etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), a significant proportion of patients are classified as having a moderate severity level. Conversely, infections attributed to EV-71 often lead to significant problems, and in some instances, fatality may occur.
Confusion sometimes arises between the Hand, Foot, and Mouth sickness and the Foot and Mouth (F&M) illness, also known as Hoof and Mouth disease, which is a prominent condition observed in cattle, sheep, and pigs. The Hand, Foot, and Mouth illness is more often known as HFM illness. However, it is essential to keep in mind that Foot and Mouth disease is brought on by separate virus strains, and there is presently no evidence to show that there is a direct association between the two conditions. The illness that affects animals and is known as Foot and Mouth disease (F&M) is not contagious to humans. On the other hand, the disease that affects humans and is known as Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is not contagious to animals.
Enteroviruses may often be isolated from infected patients' respiratory secretions, such as mucus, saliva, and sputum, as well as from the material that makes up their feces. Throughout the course of human history, the condition known as polio has been understood to be caused by an enterovirus. However, the introduction of global vaccination campaigns directed against the poliovirus has resulted in a significant drop in the number of cases of polio around the globe. Enteroviruses that do not cause polio have a high rate of mutation, which has led to the development of a diversified collection of more than 200 strains. These A variety of illnesses, including the common cold, flaccid paralysis, aseptic meningitis, myocarditis, conjunctivitis, and hand, foot, and mouth disease, are caused by non-polio enteroviruses. These enteroviruses may also cause polio. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is poorly tracked globally, although recurring outbreaks imply a high prevalence. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) may strike anybody at any age; however, it is more prevalent in children less than 5 years old.

Keywords: Epidemiological Characteristics; Risk Factors; Hand-foot-and-mouth Disease (HFMD); Children; Pathophysiology; Differential Diagnosis; Prevention; Conclusions

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Citation

Citation: Abdulaziz Radhi S Aljohni., et al. “HFMD is a Common Viral Illness that Causes a Rash on the Hands, Foot, and Mouth".Acta Scientific Microbiology 6.12 (2023): 63-67.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 Abdulaziz Radhi S Aljohni., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




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