Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 12

HFMD is a Common Viral Illness that Causes a Rash on the Hands, Foot, and Mouth

Abdulaziz Radhi S Aljohni1*, Bandar Saud Alenzi2, Tariq Ibrahim Alhazmy3, Obaid Ali Alharbi3, Waleed Dhayab Almatrfi4, Ghazi Khali1 Suliman Alqouzi5, Fahd Omar Almhmodi6 and Marwan Masadaljohani7

1Ph.D. Microbiology, Department of Laboratory at King Fahad Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia
2Medical Laboratory Technology, Department of Laboratory at King Fahad Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia
3MSc Senior Specialist, Laboratory Histopathology Department at Medicine Centre, Madina, Saudi Arabia
4Technician Laboratory Department at Medicine Centre, Madina, Saudi Arabia
5MSc Laboratory Histopathology at Al-Qunfudhah Health Regional Laboratory, Saudi Arabia
6Medical Laboratory Technology, Al-Qunfudhah Health Regional Laboratory, Saudi Arabia
7Senior Pharmacists Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madina, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding Author: Abdulaziz Radhi S Aljohni, Ph.D. Microbiology, Department of Laboratory at King Fahad Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia.

Received: November 06, 2023; Published: November 22, 2023


The condition caused by a virus and referred to as "hand, foot, and mouth disease" (HFMD) mostly affects children less than 5 years old. Although the occurrence of this phenomenon is possible among adults, the probability of its manifestation is significantly diminished. Multiple enteroviruses have been suspected of playing a role in the development of HFMD in humans. Poliovirus is a family of viruses that includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, rhinoviruses, and other enteroviruses. Viruses belonging to this particular family have the potential to induce pathogenic conditions in human hosts.
Most cases of HFMD are brought on by enterovirus type A (HEV-A), in particular enterovirus 71 (EV-71), which is the virus responsible for the majority of HFMD cases across the globe. Other frequent causes include the enteroviruses coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), coxsackievirus A5 (CVA5), and coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10). In the United States, HFMD is most often brought on by a CVA16. When a person has HFMD, they will often begin to feel better on their own within seven to ten days. Although they are uncommon, complications are not impossible to have. When coxsackieviruses are identified as the etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), a significant proportion of patients are classified as having a moderate severity level. Conversely, infections attributed to EV-71 often lead to significant problems, and in some instances, fatality may occur.
Confusion sometimes arises between the Hand, Foot, and Mouth sickness and the Foot and Mouth (F&M) illness, also known as Hoof and Mouth disease, which is a prominent condition observed in cattle, sheep, and pigs. The Hand, Foot, and Mouth illness is more often known as HFM illness. However, it is essential to keep in mind that Foot and Mouth disease is brought on by separate virus strains, and there is presently no evidence to show that there is a direct association between the two conditions. The illness that affects animals and is known as Foot and Mouth disease (F&M) is not contagious to humans. On the other hand, the disease that affects humans and is known as Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is not contagious to animals.
Enteroviruses may often be isolated from infected patients' respiratory secretions, such as mucus, saliva, and sputum, as well as from the material that makes up their feces. Throughout the course of human history, the condition known as polio has been understood to be caused by an enterovirus. However, the introduction of global vaccination campaigns directed against the poliovirus has resulted in a significant drop in the number of cases of polio around the globe. Enteroviruses that do not cause polio have a high rate of mutation, which has led to the development of a diversified collection of more than 200 strains. These A variety of illnesses, including the common cold, flaccid paralysis, aseptic meningitis, myocarditis, conjunctivitis, and hand, foot, and mouth disease, are caused by non-polio enteroviruses. These enteroviruses may also cause polio. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is poorly tracked globally, although recurring outbreaks imply a high prevalence. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) may strike anybody at any age; however, it is more prevalent in children less than 5 years old.

Keywords: Epidemiological Characteristics; Risk Factors; Hand-foot-and-mouth Disease (HFMD); Children; Pathophysiology; Differential Diagnosis; Prevention; Conclusions


  1. Woodland DL. “Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease”. Viral Immunology4 (2019): 159.
  2. Zhu L., et al. “The clinical value of aquaporin-4 in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease and the effect of magnesium sulfate on its expression: a prospective randomized clinical trial”. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 7 (2019): 1343-1349.
  3. Tsai YH., et al. “Enterovirus A71 Containing Codon-Deoptimized VP1 and High-Fidelity Polymerase as Next-Generation Vaccine Candidate”. Journal of Virology13 (2019).
  4. Sarma N. “Hand, foot, and mouth disease: current scenario and Indian perspective”. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology 2 (2013): 165-175.
  5. Nguyen HX., et al. “Temporal relationships between climate variables and hand-foot-mouth disease: a multi-province study in the Mekong Delta Region, Vietnam”. International Journal of Biometeorology3 (2020): 389-396.
  6. Mirand A., et al. “A large-scale outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease, France, as at 28 September 2021”. Euro Surveillance43 (2021).
  7. Saguil A., et al. “Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease: Rapid Evidence Review”. American Family Physician7 (2019): 408-414.
  8. Broccolo F., et al. “Possible long-term sequelae in hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by Coxsackievirus A6”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology3 (2019): 804-806.
  9. Lewis A., et al. “Introduction and Differential Diagnosis of Monkeypox in Argentina, 2022”. Emergency Infectious Disease 10 (2022): 2123-2125.
  10. Ogilvie MM and Tearne CF. “Spontaneous abortion after hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by Coxsackie virus A16”. British Medical Journal6254 (1980): 1527-1528.
  11. Zhang D., et al. “Hand-Washing: The Main Strategy for Avoiding Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health6 (2018).
  12. Guo N., et al. “Effect of hand washing and personal hygiene on hand food mouth disease: A community intervention study”. Medicine (Baltimore)51 (2018): e13144.
  13. He Y., et al. “Risk factors for critical disease and death from hand, foot and mouth disease”. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 9 (2014): 966-970.
  14. Velástegui J., et al. “[A case report of hand, foot, and mouth disease with necrotizing mucocutaneous lesions]”. Medwave7 (2019): e7683.
  15. Nayak G., et al. “Global emergence of Enterovirus 16: a systematic review”. Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 1 (2022): 78.


Citation: Abdulaziz Radhi S Aljohni., et al. “HFMD is a Common Viral Illness that Causes a Rash on the Hands, Foot, and Mouth".Acta Scientific Microbiology 6.12 (2023): 63-67.


Copyright: © 2023 Abdulaziz Radhi S Aljohni., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

Contact US