Antiviral Pathogenesis and Interventions: New Understandings and Developments
Abhinandan Patil1, Neha Singh2* and Khushboo Bhange3
1D. Y. Patil Education Society, (Deemed to be University), Kolhapur, India
2Virology Lab, Department of Microbiology, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
3Department of Biochemistry, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
*Corresponding Author: Neha Singh, Virology Lab, Department of Microbiology, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India.
June 27, 2023; Published: July 12, 2023
The urgent desire to reduce the health risks associated with viral infections is driving significant progress in the study of viral pathogenesis and antibiotic treatments. Insights into viral pathogenesis processes and promising new approaches to antimicrobial intervention are the goals of this extensive review. The first part of the paper is a comprehensive analysis of viral pathogenesis, which includes viral entrance, replication, and spread in host cells. It investigates the complex molecular processes of viral infections by exploring the relationships between viral proteins and host factors. It also delves into the intricate immunological responses that viral infections elicit and how they contribute to viral clearance and disease development. Antimicrobial interventions are discussed next, with an emphasis on the many strategies used to tackle viral infections. Novel targets for antiviral medicines are discussed, as well as the optimization of treatment regimens. Traditional vaccinations, nucleic acid-based vaccines, and viral vector-based vaccines are all included in this overview, along with their respective achievements. Also discussed are immune-based therapeutics for treating viral infections, including the use of monoclonal antibodies and immune checkpoint inhibitors. To better understand viral pathogenesis and direct antibiotic therapies, molecular methods are crucial. Viral strain identification, therapeutic target discovery, and customized therapy are just few of the topics covered in this overview of genomes, proteomics, and transcriptomics' applications in the field of virus research. Predicting viral evolution, evaluating therapeutic efficacy, and improving treatment regimens are also investigated, as is the integration of bioinformatics and computer modeling. Significant progress has been achieved, however there are still issues to be resolved. New viral diseases are constantly being discovered, and old viruses are constantly changing, making it difficult to keep up with them all and come up with efficient therapies. Antiviral medicines and vaccinations are discussed, along with their availability, price, and fair distribution. The analysis also highlights promising avenues for future research into viral pathogenesis and antibiotic treatments. In it, the possibilities of single-cell analysis, systems biology, and high-throughput sequencing technology for expanding our knowledge of viral infections are discussed. Accelerating the development of antiviral drugs and improving treatment results might be possible with the combination of artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies. Detecting and reacting to new viral risks also requires multidisciplinary efforts and a "One Health" perspective. This study concludes with an extensive account of the pathophysiology of viruses and the antimicrobial therapies that have been developed to combat them.
Keywords: Antiviral Pathogenesis; Viral Disease; Drug Development; Infections; Antiviral Drugs
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