Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 6 Issue 7

Can We Still Save Our Goldilocks Zone From Climate Change Catastrophes?

Kawalpreet K Aneja* and Kiranjot K Aneja

Biology Educator for Randolph Career and Technical Institute, Henry Ave, Philadelphia, USA

*Corresponding Author: Kawalpreet K Aneja, Biology Educator for Randolph Career and Technical Institute, Henry Ave, Philadelphia, USA.

Received: June 02, 2023; Published: June 23, 2023


Trees are the lungs of our planet. Among all the planets in our solar system, only Earth is habitable. Heterotrophic life forms survived better after the evolution of photosynthetic cyanobacteria and the earliest marine and freshwater algal mats about 2.460-2.426 Ga [1,2]. With photosynthesis, atmospheric oxygen levels rose, the ozone layer formed, and life flourished on Earth. During photosynthesis, chloroplasts convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen in the sunlight. There are about 100 chloroplasts in each mesophyll layer of leaves [3]. Photosynthesis converts ∼200 billion tons of CO2 into complex organic compounds annually and produces ∼140 billion tons of oxygen in the atmosphere [4]. By harnessing solar energy through photosynthesis green plants and trees are the sole source of food on Earth. In addition to the source of oxygen, and food, trees release negative ions, beneficial vapors and aerosols of many biogenic volatile compounds like terpenes that prevent lifestyle-related diseases like cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and cancer. The only way to save our future is by stopping trees cutting and preserving our old forests. It is beneficial to grow trees around hospitals and workplaces so that people can enjoy forest therapy during lunchtime or leisure time. Students should have classes and study time in these forest areas. Can we still restore our forests and stop climate change?

 Keywords: Agarikon; Forests,; Forest Bathing; Climate Change; Photosynthesis; Respiration


  1. Strother P K., et al. “Earth's earliest non-marine eukaryotes”. Nature 7348 (2011): 505-509.
  2. Knauth L P and M J Kennedy. “The late Precambrian greening of the Earth”. Nature 460 (2009): 728-732.
  3. Woodson J D. “Chloroplast quality control - balancing energy production and stress”. New Phytology1 (2016): 36-41.
  4. Johnson M P. “Photosynthesis”. Essays Biochemistry3 (2016): 255-273.
  5. Turner-Skoff J B and N Cavender. “The benefits of trees for liveable and sustainable communities”. Plants, People, Planet4 (2019): 323-335.
  6. Vella-Brodrick D A and K Gilowska. “Effects of Nature (Greenspace) on Cognitive Functioning in School Children and Adolescents: a Systematic Review”. Educational Psychology Review3 (2022): 1217-1254.
  7. Timilsina A., et al. “Potential Pathway of Nitrous Oxide Formation in Plants”. Frontiers in Plant Science 11 (2020): 1177.
  8. Sundqvist E., et al. “Atmospheric methane removal by boreal plants”. Geophysical Research Letters21 (2021).
  9. Margulis L S and Dorion. Microcosmos: Four Billion Years of Microbial Evolution. Microcosmos: Four Billion Years of Microbial Evolution. California: University of California Press. ed. "Chapter 6, "The Oxygen Holocaust"". (1986).
  10. Tang K H., et al. “Carbon metabolic pathways in phototrophic bacteria and their broader evolutionary implications”. Frontiers in Microbiology 2 (2011): 165.
  11. Cardona T., et al. “Origin and Evolution of Water Oxidation before the Last Common Ancestor of the Cyanobacteria”. Molecular Biology and Evolution5 (2015): 1310-1328.
  12. Dismukes G C., et al. “The origin of atmospheric oxygen on Earth: the innovation of oxygenic photosynthesis”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America5 (2001): 2170-2175.
  13. Roviello V., et al. “Forest-bathing and physical activity as weapons against COVID-19: a review”. Environmental Chemistry Letters1 (2022): 131-140.
  14. Jesus I., et al. “Promising effects of exercise on the cardiovascular, metabolic and immune system during COVID-19 period”. Journal of Human Hypertension1 (2021): 1-3.
  15. Wang H., et al. “Study on the change of negative air ion concentration and its influencing factors at different spatio-temporal scales”. Global Ecology and Conservation 23 (2020): e01008.
  16. Jiang S Y., et al. “Negative Air Ions and Their Effects on Human Health and Air Quality Improvement”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences10 (2018).
  17. Wang S Y. “The Effect of Phytoncides”. International Handbook of Forest Therapy, ed. D. Kotte, Q. Li, and W.S. Shin. 2019, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UNITED KINGDOM: Cambridge Scholars Publisher (2019).
  18. Wolf K. International Handbook of Forest Therapy. International Handbook of Forest Therapy, ed. D. Kotte, Q. Li, and W.S. Shin. 2019, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UNITED KINGDOM: Cambridge Scholars Publisher (2019).
  19. Qi L and Shinrin-yoku. “The Art and Science of Forest Bathing – How Trees Can Help You Find Health and Happiness”. London: Penguin Random House (2018).
  20. Beresford-Kroeger D and C H Kroeger. “Arboretum borealis. Arboretum borealis”. 2010: University of Michigan Press (2010).
  21. Borukh I., et al. “bactericidal effect of volatile phytoncides of garlic”. Voprosy pitaniia, (1974).
  22. Phytoncide, in In Wikipedia (2022).
  23. Park, Y L., et al. “Comparative Study on the Education System of Traditional Medicine in China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan”. Explore (NY), 12.5 (2016): 375-83.
  24. Introduction to the Electromagnetic Spectrum. NASA Science (2016).
  25. Helmenstine A. Leaf Chromatography Experiment – Easy Paper Chromatography (2022).
  26. GM C. “The Cell: A Molecular Approach”. 2nd The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates ed. Photosynthesis (2000).
  27. Archibald J M. “Endosymbiosis and Eukaryotic Cell Evolution”. Current Biology19 (2015): R911-921.
  28. Howe C J. “Cellular evolution: what's in a mitochondrion?” Current Biology10 (2008): R429-r431.
  29. Lenssen N J L., et al. “Improvements in the GISTEMP Uncertainty Model”. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres12 (2019): 6307-6326.
  30. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP). NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (2023).
  31. Hans Pörtner D C R. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck,A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem, B. Rama (eds.)] ed. In: Climate Change. 2022, Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,UK and New York, NY, USA (2022): 37-118.
  32. The Basics of Climate Change. Climate Change: Evidence and Causes (2020).
  33. Etheridge D M., et al. “Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn”. Journal of Geophysical Research-AtmospheresD2 (1996): 4115-4128.
  34. Jong L M., et al. “2000 years of annual ice core data from Law Dome, East Antarctica”. Earth System Science Data 7 (2022): 3313-3328.
  35. Forster, P., et al. “Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing” (2007).
  36. Schmidt L J. “Satellite data confirm annual carbon dioxide minimum above 400 ppm” (2017).
  37. Wheeler N and N Watts. “Climate Change: From Science to Practice”. Current Environmental Health Reports1 (2018): 170-178.
  38. Keeling, C D. “Atmospheric CO2-modern record, South Pole”. Atmospheric CO2-modern record, South Pole. A Compendium of Data on Global Change, edited by T.A. Voden, R.J. Sepanski, and F.W. Stoss ed. in Trends. (1991a).
  39. Rubino, M., et al. “A revised 1000 year atmospheric δ13C-CO2 record from Law Dome and South Pole, Antarctica”. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres15 (2013): 8482-8499.
  40. What is Argo. “These data were collected and made freely available by the International Argo Program and the national programs that contribute to it”.
  41. The Argo Program is part of the Global Ocean Observing System” (2000).
  42. How Argo floats work.
  43. Cheng, L., et al. “How fast are the oceans warming?” Science 363 (2019): 128-129.
  44. Cheng L., et al. “Improved estimates of ocean heat content from 1960 to 2015”. Science Advances3 (2017): e1601545.
  45. Olson S., et al. “The Effect of Ocean Salinity on Climate and Its Implications for Earth's Habitability”. Geophysical Research Letters10 (2022): e2021GL095748.
  46. Horn P. Oceans Storing More Heat as CO2 Builds Up, in Inside Climate News (2017).
  47. Forest definition and extent, in United Nations Environment Programme. 27 January (2010).
  48. Crowther T W., et al. “Mapping tree density at a global scale”. Nature7568 (2015): 201-205.
  49. World Health O. WHO global report on traditional and complementary medicine 2019. WHO global report on traditional and complementary medicine 2019. 2019, Geneva: World Health Organization (2019).
  50. Wangchuk P. “Therapeutic Applications of Natural Products in Herbal Medicines, Biodiscovery Programs, and Biomedicine”. Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature1 (2018): 1-20.
  51. Turpin G., et al. “Aboriginal medicinal plants of Queensland: ethnopharmacological uses, species diversity, and biodiscovery pathways”. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine1 (2022): 54.
  52. Wangchuk P and T Tobgay. “Contributions of medicinal plants to the Gross National Happiness and Biodiscovery in Bhutan”. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 11 (2015): 48.
  53. Rates S M. “Plants as source of drugs”. Toxicon5 (2001): 603-13.
  54. Gilhen-Baker M., et al. “Old growth forests and large old trees as critical organisms connecting ecosystems and human health. A review”. Environmental Chemistry Letters2 (2022): 1529-1538.
  55. Krachler R., et al. “Natural iron fertilization of the coastal ocean by "blackwater rivers". Science of the Total Environment 656 (2019): 952-958.
  56. Elkhateeb W., et al. “Fomitopsis officinalis mushroom: ancient gold mine of functional components and biological activities for modern medicine”. Egyptian Pharmaceutical Journal4 (2019): 285-289.
  57. Antonelli M., et al. “Effects of forest bathing (shinrin-yoku) on levels of cortisol as a stress biomarker: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. International Journal of Biometeorology8 (2019): 1117-1134.
  58. Qing L. “Forest Medicine”. ln: Li Q (ed): Forest Medicine. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc (2012).
  59. Li Q., et al. “Acute effects of walking in forest environments on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters”. European Journal of Applied Physiology11 (2011): 2845-2853.
  60. Li Q., et al. “Forest bathing enhances human natural killer activity and expression of anti-cancer proteins”. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology2 (2007): 3-8.
  61. Li Q., et al. “A day trip to a forest park increases human natural killer activity and the expression of anti-cancer proteins in male subjects”. Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents 2 (2010): 157-165.
  62. Bjørnerem A., et al. “Endogenous sex hormones in relation to age, sex, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases in a general population: the Tromsø Study”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism12 (2004): 6039-6047.
  63. Tsai Y-M., et al. “Effect of resistance exercise on dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations during a 72-h recovery: relation to glucose tolerance and insulin response”. Life Sciences13 (2006): 1281-1286.
  64. Thangaleela S., et al. “Essential Oils, Phytoncides, Aromachology, and Aromatherapy— A Review”. Applied Sciences9 (2022): 4495.
  65. Stamets P. Fungi Perfecti. November 13, (2009).
  66. Deforestation Facts and Statistics Deforestation Facts and Statistics (2022).
  67. Buis A. The Atmosphere: Getting a Handle on Carbon Dioxide. October 9 (2019).
  68. Wofsy S C., et al. “ATom: Merged Atmospheric Chemistry, Trace Gases, and Aerosols (Version 1.5)”. 2018 (ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center.).
  69. Pan Y., et al. “A large and persistent carbon sink in the world's forests”. Science (New York, N.Y.) 6045 (2011): 988-993.
  70. Harris, N L., et al. “Global maps of twenty-first century forest carbon fluxes”. Nature Climate Change3 (2021): 234-240.
  71. Cunningham S C and J Read. “Do temperate rainforest trees have a greater ability to acclimate to changing temperatures than tropical rainforest trees?” New Phytologist1 (2003): 55-64.
  72. Stanford G. SHORT-ROTATION FORESTRY AS A SOLAR ENERGY TRANSDUCER AND STORAGE SYSTEM G. Stanford is director, Greenhills Center, Cedar Hill, Texas 75106. Editor's Note: This report is based on a larger study now in progress. Because of space limitations, it was necessary to remove a considerable amount of material from the original manuscript submitted by the author. Anyone wishing to obtain the complete paper can do so by writing to Dr. Stanford at Greenhills Center, Route 1, Box 861, Cedar Hill, Texas 75106, in Agriculture and Energy, W. Lockeretz, Editor. (1977): 535-557.
  73. Le Quéré, C., et al. “Global Carbon Budget 2016”. Earth System Science Data 2 (2016): 605-649.
  74. Lejeune Q., et al. “Historical deforestation locally increased the intensity of hot days in northern mid-latitudes”. Nature Climate Change5 (2018): 386-390.
  75. Griscom B W., et al. “Natural climate solutions”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America44 (2017): 11645-11650.
  76. Cook-Patton S C., et al. “Mapping carbon accumulation potential from global natural forest regrowth”. Nature 7826 (2020): 545-550.
  77. Natural Climate Solutions Briefing Series: What Congress Needs to Know About COP27 (2022).


Citation: Kawalpreet K Aneja and Kiranjot K Aneja. “Can We Still Save Our Goldilocks Zone From Climate Change Catastrophes?". Acta Scientific Microbiology 6.7 (2023): 70-81.


Copyright: © 2023 Kawalpreet K Aneja and Kiranjot K Aneja. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US