Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 6 Issue 7

The Role of Microbiome on Neurodegenerative Diseases

Palak Bafna*

Medical Biotechnology, Dr. DY. Patil University, India

*Corresponding Author: Palak Bafna, Medical Biotechnology, Dr. DY. Patil University, India.

Received: May 25, 2023; Published: June 20, 2023


Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurological disorders adversely affecting the lives of millions of people worldwide and entail the progressive loss of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS). They present a unique challenge in the modern research landscape. Despite decades of research, our understanding of the underlying causes and mechanisms still needs to be improved, and very few effective treatments exist. Given the lack of progress, the research community's attention has recently shifted toward other mediators of neurological disease that may present future targets for therapeutic research. One such mediator is the gut microbiome, which communicates with the brain through the gut-brain axis and has been implicated in various neurological disorders.

The gut-brain axis, encompasses the bidirectional interaction between the gut and brain through neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic channels.

 Keywords: Neurodegenerative Diseases (NDDs); Central Nervous System (CNS); Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)


  1. Dalile B., et al. "The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Microbiota–Gut–Brain Communication”. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology 8 (2019): 461-478.
  2. Neufeld K M., et al. "Reduced Anxiety-Like Behavior and Central Neurochemical Change in Germ-Free Mice”. Neurogastroenterology Motility3 (2011): 255-265.
  3. Cryan J F and TG Dinan. "Mind-Altering Microorganisms: The Impact of the Gut Microbiota on Brain and Behaviour”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience10 (2012): 701-712.
  4. Heijtz R D., et al. "Normal Gut Microbiota Modulates Brain Development and Behavior”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 7 (2011): 3047-3052.
  5. Chu C., et al. "The Microbiota Regulate Neuronal Function and Fear Extinction Learning”. Nature 7779 (2019): 543-548.
  6. Erkkinen MG., et al. "Clinical neurology and epidemiology of the major neurodegenerative diseases”. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology (2018).
  7. Matheson J and Holsinger R M. "The Role of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Review”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences2 (2023).
  8. Rasheed Faisal, et al. "The Role of Microbiome in Psychiatric Diseases (Insomnia and Anxiety/Depression) with Microbiological Mechanisms”. Advanced Gut and Microbiome Research 2023 (2023).
  9. Haque R U and A I Levey. "Alzheimer’s Disease: A Clinical Perspective and Future Nonhuman Primate Research Opportunities”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 52 (2019): 26224-26219.
  10. Esang M and M Gupta. "Aducanumab as a Novel Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Decade of Hope, Controversies, and the Future”. Cureus 11 (2021): e17591.
  11. Kang Y J., et al. "Therapeutic Targeting Strategies for Early- to Late-Staged Alzheimer’s Disease”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2 (2020).
  12. Jin Jinghua., et al. "Gut-derived β-amyloid: Likely a centerpiece of the gut–brain axis contributing to Alzheimer’s pathogenesis”. Gut Microbes1 (2023).
  13. Fung T C., et al. "Interactions between the Microbiota, Immune and Nervous Systems in Health and Disease”. Nature Neuroscience2 (2017): 145-155.
  14. Liu S., et al. "Gut Microbiota and Dysbiosis in Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications for Pathogenesis and Treatment”. Molecular Neurobiology12 (2020): 5026-5043.
  15. Romanenko, M., et al. "Nutrition, Gut Microbiota, and Alzheimer’s Disease”. Frontiers in Psychiatry 12 (2021): 712673.
  16. Vogt NM., et al. "Gut Microbiome Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease”. Scientific Report1 (2017): 13537.
  17. Harach, T., et al. "Reduction of Abeta Amyloid Pathology in APPPS1 Transgenic Mice in the Absence of Gut Microbiota”. Scientific Report1 (2017): 41802.
  18. Poewe W., et al. "Parkinson Disease”. Nature Reviews Disease Primers 3 (2017): 17013.
  19. Sveinbjornsdottir S. "The Clinical Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease”. Journal of Neurochemisry1 (2016): 318-324.
  20. Romano S., et al. "Meta-Analysis of the Parkinson’s Disease Gut Microbiome Suggests Alterations Linked to Intestinal Inflammation”. NPJ Park Disease1 (2021): 27.
  21. Skjaerbaek C., et al. "Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease”. Journal of Clinical Medicine3 (2021): 493.
  22. Hustad E and J O Aasly. "Clinical and Imaging Markers of Prodromal Parkinson’s Disease”. Frontiers in Neurology 11 (2020): 395.
  23. Liang X., et al. "Gut microbiome, cognitive function and brain structure: a multi-omics integration analysis”. Translational Neurodegeneration 11 (2022).
  24. Arnoriaga-Rodriguez M., et al. "Obesity Impairs Short-Term and Working Memory through Gut Microbial Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids”. Cell Metabolism4 (2020): 548-560.
  25. Cryan JF., et al. "The Gut Microbiome in Neurological Disorders”. Lancet Neurology2 (2020): 179-194.
  26. Zhang ZQ., et al. "Association between Dietary Intake of Flavonoid and Bone Mineral Density in Middle Aged and Elderly Chinese Women”. Osteoporosis International10 (2014): 2417-2425.
  27. Katzman R., et al. "A Chinese Version of the Mini-Mental State Examination; Impact of Illiteracy in a Shanghai Dementia Survey”. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology10, 1988): 971-978.
  28. Rutsch A., et al. "The Gut-Brain Axis: How Microbiota and Host Inflammasome Influence Brain Physiology and Pathology”. Frontiers in Immunology 11 (2020).
  29. Jiang H., et al. "Altered Fecal Microbiota Composition in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder”. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 48 (2015): 186-194.
  30. Akkasheh G., et al. "Clinical and Metabolic Response to Probiotic Administration in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial”. Nutrition 32 (2016): 315-320.
  31. Valles-Colomer M., et al. "The Neuroactive Potential of the Human Gut Microbiota in Quality of Life and Depression”. Nature Microbiology4 (2019): 623-632.
  32. Zeng B., et al. "The gut microbiome from patients with schizophrenia modulates the glutamate-glutamine-GABA cycle and schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in mice”. Science Advances2 (2019): eaau8317.
  33. Ho LKH., et al. "Gut Microbiota Changes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review”. Gut Pathogen 12 (2020): 1-18.
  34. Sharon G., et al. "Human Gut Microbiota from Autism Spectrum Disorder Promote Behavioral Symptoms in Mice”. Cell6 (2019): 1600-1618.
  35. Wong M L., et al. "Inflammasome Signaling Affects Anxiety- and Depressive-Like Behavior and Gut Microbiome Composition”. Molecular Psychiatry6 (2016): 797-805.
  36. Hsiao EY., et al. "Microbiota Modulate Behavioral and Physiological Abnormalities Associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorders”. Cell7 (2013): 1451-1463.
  37. Duvallet C., et al. "Meta-Analysis of Gut Microbiome Studies Identifies Disease-Specific and Shared Responses”. Nature Communication1 (2017): 1784.
  38. O’Keefe S JD. "Diet, Microorganisms and Their Metabolites, and Colon Cancer”. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12 (2016): 691-706.
  39. Mittal, R., et al. "Neurotransmitters: The Critical Modulators Regulating Gut–Brain Axis”. Journal of Cellular Physiology 9 (2017): 2359-2372.


Citation: Palak Bafna. “The Role of Microbiome on Neurodegenerative Diseases". Acta Scientific Microbiology 6.7 (2023): 43-51.


Copyright: © 2023 Palak Bafna. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

Contact US