Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 7

Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on the Bioluminescence Expression of the Inducible SOS-Lux gene Biosensor E. coli C600 pPSL-1 and E. coli DPD1718 elicited by Mitomycin-C

Awulu EA1,2*

1Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

2School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK

*Corresponding Author: Awulu EA, Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria and School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.

Received: May 22, 2023; Published: June 14, 2023


The microbial SOS lux gene test was designed for quick screening of environmental mutagens. The assay is built on the receptor-reporter principle, with SOS as receptor sensitive to DNA damage and a bioluminescence system expressing detectable and measurable light signal. This bioassay was aimed at evaluating the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the bioluminescence expression of inducible SOS lux gene biosensor E. coli C600 pPSL-1 and E. coli DPD1718 elicited by Mitomycin C (a known mutagen). The bacterial culture of E. coli C600 pPSL-1 and E. coli DPD1718 at the mid-exponential growth phase were exposed to different concentrations of MMC (0, 10, 25, 75 and 100 ng/ml respectively) and with DMSO (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 % respectively) for each MMC concentration). E. coli C600 pPSL-1 bioluminescence demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in SOS response that peaked at 3 hr post-MMC exposure, whereas E. coli DPD1718 bioluminescence demonstrated a gradual increase in bioluminescence which can be distinguished statistically same time. Above 1% DMSO concentrations significantly reduced the bioluminescence expression of E. coli C600 pPSL-1 and E. coli DPD1718. DMSO concentration above 1% caused significant reduction in bioluminescence in both microbial sensors. Hence, DMSO can cause additional toxicity in terms of hydrophobic compounds mobility across cell membrane of test subjects in toxicity evaluation and its role be screened meticulously.

 Keywords: Dimethyl Sulfoxide; Bioluminescence; Mitomycin C; E. coli C600 pPSL-1; E. coli DPD1718


  1. Ames B N., et al. “The predictive value for animal carcinogenicity of mutagenicity in the salmonella/microsome test”. Mutation Research2 (1978).
  2. Ames SB., et al. “Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with salmonella-mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test”. Mutation Research6 (1975): 347-363.
  3. Broerse J J., et al. “Tumour induction in animals and the radiation risk for man”. In C. E. Swenberg, G. Horneck and E. G. Stassinopoulos (Eds.), Biological effects and physics of solar and galactic cosmic radiation (Eds ed., pp. 161-175) (1993).
  4. Chen H., et al. “DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation associated with gene expression regulatory network during 3-methylcholanthrene induced lung cell malignant transformation. Science of the Total Environment (2021): 771.
  5. Davidov Y., et al. “Improved bacterial SOS promoter:: Lux fusions for genotoxicity detection”. Mutation Research-Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 1 (2000): 97-107.
  6. Dunlap P V and Kuo A. “Cell density-dependent modulation of the vibrio fischeri luminescence system in the absence of autoinducer and LuxR protein”. Journal of Bacteriology8 (1992): 2440-2448.
  7. Engebrecht J., et al. “Measuring gene expression with light”. Science 4692 (1985): 1345-1347.
  8. Inouye S., et al. “Imaging of luciferase secretion from transformed chinese hamster ovary cells”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America20 (1992): 9584-9587.
  9. Katerji M., et al. “Approaches and methods to measure Oxidative Stress in clinical samples: Research applications in the cancer field”. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 29 (2019).
  10. Levin W., et al. “Role of purified cytochrome P448 and epoxide hydrase in teh activation and detoxification of benzo[a]pyrene. in: Jarina DM (ed). drug metabolism concept”. American Chemical Society Series 44 (1977): 125.
  11. Maron D M and Ames B N. “Revised methods for the salmonella mutagenicity test”. Mutation Research/Environmental Mutagenesis and Related Subjects3-4 (1983): 173-215.
  12. Meighen E A. “Bacterial bioluminescence: Organization, regulation, and application of the lux genes”. FASEB Journal11 (1993): 1016-1022.
  13. Miceli M., et al. “A new ultrasensitive bioluminescence-based method for assaying monoacylglycerol lipase”. International Journal of molecular Sciences11 (2021): 6148.
  14. Modrzyński J J., et al. “Evaluation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a co-solvent for toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds”. Ecotoxicology9 (2019): 1136-1141.
  15. Natarajan A T., et al. “Frequencies of x-ray-induced chromosome translocations in human peripheral lymphocytes as detected by in situ hybridization using chromosome-specific DNA libraries”. International Journal of Radiation Biology2 (1992): 199-203.
  16. Oda Y., et al. “Evaluation of the new system (umu- test) for the detection of environmental mutagens and carcinogens”. Mutation Research/Environmental Mutagenesis and Related Subjects5 (1985): 219-229.
  17. Peshavariya H M., et al. “Analysis of dihydroethidium fluorescence for the detection of intracellular and extracellular superoxide produced by NADPH oxidase”. Free Radical Research6 (2007): 699-712.
  18. Ptitsyn L., et al. “A biosensor for environmental genotoxin screening based on an SOS lux assay in recombinant escherichia coli cells”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology11 (1997): 4377-4384.
  19. Quillardet P and Hofnung M. “The SOS chromotest, a colorimetric bacterial assay for genotoxins: Procedures”. Mutation Research/Environmental Mutagenesis and Related Subjects3 (1985): 65-78.
  20. Radman M. “SOS repair hypothesis: Phenomenology of an inducible DNA repair which is accompanied by mutagenesis”. Basic Life Sciences 5 A (1975): 355-367.
  21. Rettberg P., et al. “Increased sensitivity of the SOS- LUX-test for the detection of hydrophobic genotoxic substances with salmonella typhimurium TA1535 as host strain” (2001).
  22. Rettberg P., et al. “Microscale application of the SOS-LUX-TEST as biosensor for genotoxic agents”. Analytica Chimica Acta3 (1999): 289-296.
  23. Riss T L., et al. “Apoptosis Marker Assays for HTS”. In Markossian, S., Grossman, A., Brimacombe K., (Ed). Assay Guidance Manual. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (2004).
  24. Tates A D., et al. “Detection of somatic mutants in man: HPRT mutations in lymphocytes and hemoglobin mutations in erythrocytes”. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis1 (1989): 73- 82.
  25. Thompson E M., et al. “Vargula hilgendorfii luciferase: A secreted reporter enzyme for monitoring gene expression in mammalian cells”. Gene2 (1990): 257-262.
  26. Vankemmelbeke M., et al. “Rapid detection of colicin E9-induced DNA damage using escherichia coli cells carrying SOS promoter-lux fusions”. Journal of Bacteriology18 (2005): 6601.
  27. Wada N., et al. “Superoxide anion reacts with enzyme intermediate in the bacterial luciferase reaction competitive with intramolecular electron transfer”. Journal of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence1 (1997): 15-20.
  28. Wu X., et al. “Enhancement of luminescent bacteria sensitivity on toxic substances by DMSO”. Modern Food Science and Technology5 (2017): 298-304.


Citation: Awulu EA. “Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on the Bioluminescence Expression of the Inducible SOS-Lux gene Biosensor E. coli C600 pPSL-1 and E. coli DPD1718 elicited by Mitomycin-C". Acta Scientific Microbiology 6.7 (2023): 22-26.


Copyright: © 2023 Awulu EA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US