Microbial Biosurfactants: An Overview of their Uses, Classification, Types, Properties, and Biosynthesis
Priyanshi Patel, Hetshree Patel, Janvi Sharma, Sarthak Shrimali, Sarita Sharma* and Meenu Saraf
Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
*Corresponding Author: Sarita Sharma, Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
April 18, 2023; Published: May 24, 2023
Various environmental problems are established because of the accidental oil leakage as well as the hydrocarbon waste disposal on the land, which makes the surrounding area polluted and can cause damage to the ecosystem. Remediation must be carried out in order to repair these types of damages. Several oil-degrading microorganisms exist in the environment, and they also produce biosurfactant as a secondary metabolite. Biosurfactants are surface-active agents with an amphiphilic nature. These compounds are classified on the basis of their microbial origin and molecular weight. Among all the types of biosurfactant, rhamnolipid and surfactin are the most widely known, which are produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Biosurfactants have more beneficial properties than synthetic surfactants, like being less toxic, easily biodegradable, and eco-friendly. They can also survive in extreme conditions and can tolerate high salt levels. Microbes show different metabolic pathways for biosurfactant production according to substrate, given that either it is water soluble or water insoluble hydrocarbons. Biosurfactants also have potential applications in various fields. In this review work, we attempted to describe the classification of biosurfactants, their kinds and qualities, as well as their biosynthetic pathways. Biosurfactants have many applications in bioremediation fields; they also have advanced uses as bioemulsifiers in food biopreservation.
Keywords: Oil Spilling; Hydrocarbon; Pollution; Oil Degrading Microorganism; Rhamnolipid; Metabolic Pathway
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