Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 6

Molecular Profiling of Class 1 Integron Among Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Typhi Serovars Isolated from Hospitals in Bauchi

I Titus1, MY Iliyasu1*, MR Sahal1, RD Umar1, V Agbo A1, MM Wali1, S Ismail1, AF Umar1 and EB Agbo2

1Department of Biological Sciences, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Health Sciences, Otukpo Benue State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: I Titus, Department of Biological Sciences, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.

Received: April 06, 2023; Published: May 16, 2023

Abstract

Background: Multi-drug resistance is on increase in clinical Salmonella typhi serovars and it is being aided by Integron that carry cassettes of resistance genes. The genetic characterization of antimicrobial resistance genes as well as their location and diversity is important in identifying factors involved in resistance, understanding the diversity of MDR strains, identifying genetic linkages among markers, understanding potential transfer mechanisms, and developing efficient detection methods

Design and Duration: This study was carried out on clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi isolated from selected hospitals within Bauchi Metropolis between January 2019 and February 2020. The study involves the collection of blood and stool specimens across all ages and gender between ages 0-70 years who present with fever and diarrhoea among other symptoms of typhoid in selected hospitals within Bauchi.

Aim: The aim of this research is to evaluate the molecular profile of class 1 Integron among multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi from clinical specimens in selected health facilities within Bauchi metropolis.

Materials and Methods: Biodata was obtained and Phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and screened for Multidrug resistance. Class 1 Integron and antibiotic resistance genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis.

Results: In this study, 37(77.0%) of S. typhi isolates were resistant to 2 or more antimicrobial agents (Multidrug resistance). Highest resistance was observed in Oxacillin 46(95.8%), Imipenem 44(91.6%), Novobiocin 41(85.4%), Erythromycin 40(83.3%), and Ampicillin 39(81.2%). The isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin 31(64.5%), Colistin Sulphate 29(60.4%), and Ceftriaxone 28(58.3%). All isolates 48(100%) were Multidrug-resistant and sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Colistin Sulphate, Ceftriaxone, and Amikacin. Class 1 integron gene was present in all isolates subjected to molecular analysis. All four resistant genes Tem-1, Sul-1, Gyr-A, and Cat-1, were detected in selected Multidrug-resistant isolates for this study. Class 1 Integron genes were detected in all the six (6) isolates used for molecular study which is indicative of their high frequency in Salmonella typhi strains. The presence of Class 1 integron is highly associated with MDR profile.

Conclusion: In this study, prevalence of class 1 integron among multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi serovars was high. This shows that class 1 integron may likely be responsible for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones remain drugs of choice in treating typhoid fever.

 Keywords: Salmonella Serovars; Resistance Genes; Multi-Drug Resistance; Class 1 Integron

References

  1. Zaki SA and Karande S. “Multidrug-resistant typhoid fever: a review”. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 5.5 (2011): 324-337.
  2. Sehra D., et al. “An Altered Drug Resistance Pattern in Salmonella Typhi”. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology 1.5 (2013): 84-85.
  3. Inusa T., et al. “Characterization of Multidrug Resistant Salmonella typhi from clinical specimens”. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2 (2018): 53-58.
  4. Michael CA., et al. “The antimicrobial resistance crisis: causes, consequences, and management”. Frontiers in Public Health 5 (2014): 145-148.
  5. Mazel D. “Integrons: agents of bacterial evolution”. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4 (2006): 608-620.
  6. Naas T., et al. “Characterization of In53, a class 1 plasmid-and composite transposon-located integron of Escherichia coli which carries an unusual array of gene cassettes”. Journal of Bacteriology 183 (2001): 235-249.
  7. Partridge SR., et al. “Family of class 1 integrons related to In4 from Tn 1696”. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11 (2001): 3014-3020.
  8. Lee YH., et al. “A quick and safe method for fungal DNA extraction”. Plant Pathology Journal 25.1 (2009): 108-111.
  9. Asma H., et al. “Multiplex PCR for differential diagnosis of emerging typhoidal pathogens directly from blood samples”. Epidemiology Infection 137.1) (2009: 102-107.
  10. Rodriguez JM., et al. “Serotypes of Salmonella in Broiler Carcasses Marketed at Ibague, Colombia”. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 17 (2015): 545-552.
  11. Enemchukwu BN., et al. “Liver function assessment in malaria, typhoid and malaria-typhoid co-infection in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria”. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences PJBS 6 (2014): 860-863.
  12. Alanis AD., et al. “Antimicrobial properties of some plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 100 (2005): 153-157.
  13. Sood S., et al. “Re-emergence of chloramphenicol-sensitive Salmonella typhi”. The Lancet 353.9160 (1999): 1241-1242.
  14. Hasan R., et al. “Antibiotic resistance among Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A in Pakistan (2001-2006)”. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 4 (2008): 289-294.
  15. Hyeon JY., et al. “Prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characterization of Salmonella serovars in retail meat products”. Journal of Food Protection1 (2001): 161-166.
  16. Guerra S., et al. “Rhinitis as an independent risk factor for adult-onset asthma”. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 3 (2002): 419-425.
  17. Carattoli A., et al. “Antibiotic resistance genes and Salmonella genomic island 1 in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated in Italy”. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 9 (2002): 2821-2828.
  18. Mead PS., et al. “Food-related illness and death in the United States”. Emergency Infectious Disease 5.5 (1999): 607-625.
  19. Umar AF., et al. “Detection of Resistance genes in Multidrug Resistance Salmonella typhi and its overall clinical implications; a case study”. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 1 (2019): 153-157.

Citation

Citation: I Titus., et al. “Molecular Profiling of Class 1 Integron Among Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Typhi Serovars Isolated from Hospitals in Bauchi". Acta Scientific Microbiology 6.6 (2023): 36-42.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 I Titus., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In






News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US