Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 5

Evaluation of the Divergent Phytochemicals Contained in Aqueous Leaves Extracts of Artemisia annua L. var chiknensis and Cannabis sativa L. Using HPLC and GC-MS Analytical Protocols

Ejembi Patricia E1*, Chike IC Ogbonna1, Ogbonna Abigail I1, James O Ejembi2 and Olukose J Shola2

1Applied Microbiology Unit, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos, Nigeria

2Department of General Surgery, Federal Medical Center Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria

3Department of Laboratory Services, Faith Alive Foundation, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Ejembi Patricia E, Applied Microbiology Unit, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Received: March 13, 2023; Published: April 04, 2023

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the biochemical constituents and antioxidant status of aqueous leaves extracts of Artemisia annua and Cannabis sativa.

Methods: Phytochemical screening and antioxidant assay of the crude extracts of experimental plants was carried out to identify the various bioactive constituents and the antioxidants scavenging activities of extracts. Furthermore, the phytocomplex components present in the crude aqueous extracts were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography - mass spectroscopy (GC.MS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging activities respectively.

Results: The High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of aqueous leaf extract of Artemisia annua, revealed the presence of artemisinic acid (2.446), dihydroartemisinin (3.965), artemisinin (6.171) and deoxartemisinin (7.808) while Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the presence of 43 constituents with Deoxyquinghaosu (8.46%), Benzene (5.15%), 4,8-Dihydroximino-4 (3.38%), Scopoletin (3.66%) and Coumarin (1.01%) as the major constituents. Similarly, cannabidiol (CBD) (3.461), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) (3.620) and Delta-9 Tetrahydro Cannabinol (THC) (6.598) were detected in the aqueous leaf extract of Cannabis sativa, through HPLC while the results from GC-MS of aqueous leaf extract of Cannabis sativa revealed 29 biochemical constituents with the following as the major ones; Butanoic acid (6.27%), Cyclopentasiloxane (4.03%), Cyclohexasiloxane (5.11%), Cycloheptasiloxane (9.54%), Cyclooctasiloxane (5.21%), Decahydronaphtho [2,3-b]furan-2-one (6.75%), Trimethyl[4-(1-methyl-1-methoxyethyl) phenoxy]silane (4.65%), Arsenous acid (4.37%) and Acetamide (5.89%) but Cannabiniods were not detected. Additionally, the aqueous leaf extract of A. annua showed a higher antioxidant activity compared with C. sativa.

Conclusion: Many of these phytocomponents have antidiabetic, antitumor, antihypertensive, heart rate reducing, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory activities which justify why both experimental plants are employed in alleviating human ailments and other industrial purposes.

Keywords: Artemisia annua; Cannabis sativa; Phytocomponents; Antioxidant Activity

References

  1. Sermankkani M and Thangapandian V. “GC-MS analysis Cassia italic methanol leaf extract”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2 (2012): 90-94.
  2. Bora KS and Sharma A. “The genus Artemisia: A comprehensive review”. Pharm Bio1 (2011): Jour 101-109.
  3. Flemming R., et al. “Chemistry and biological activities of tetracannabinol and its derivatives”. Heterocyclic Chemistry 10 (2007): 1-4.
  4. Pellicer MJ., et al. “Artemisia (Asteraceae): Understanding its evolution using cytogenic and molecular systematic tools with emphasis subgenus Dracunculus”. Recent Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences 9 (2011): 199-222.
  5. Hartsel JA., et al. “Cannabis sativa and Hemp”. Nutraceuticals: Efficacy, Safety and Toxicity (2016): 735-754.
  6. Ashola PK and Upadhyaya K. “Evaluation of analgesic and antiinflammation activities of aerial parts of Artemisia vulgaris L in experimental animal model”. JBAPN1 (2013): 105-105.
  7. Ogbonna CIC., et al. “Combined anti-diabetic effects of extracts of Artemisia annua var. chiknensis (CBGE/CHNA/09/LTNGS/G) and each of three other plants (Momordica charantia Linn. Vernonia amygdalina and Aegle marmelos Correa) traditionally used in Nigeria for the treatment of diabetes”. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 16.2 (2017): 1-12.
  8. Terezia K., et al. “Future aspects of cannabinoids in breast cancer therapy”. International Journal of Molecular Science 20 (2019): 1-21.
  9. Russo EB. “History of Cannabis and its preparation in Saga, science and sobriquet”. Chemical Biodiversity 4 (2017): 1614-1648.
  10. Tang Q., et al. “Terpenoids and flavonoids from Artemisia species”. Plant Medicine4 (2000): 391-393.
  11. Sofowora A. “Medical plants and traditional medicine in Africa”. 2nd Sunshine House, Ibadan Nigeria: Spectrum Books Limited. Screening Plants for Bioactive Agents (2008): 134-156.
  12. McCune LM and Johns T. “Antioxidant activity in medicinal plants associated with symptoms of diabetes mellitus used by the indigenous peoples of the North American”. The Journal of Ethnopharmacology 82 (2000): 197-205.
  13. Singh RP., et al. “Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro methods”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (2002): 81–86.
  14. Okwu DE. “Phytochemicals, vitamins and mineral contents of two Nigeria medicinal plants”. International Journal of Molecular Medical Advance Science4 (2005): 375-581.
  15. Stray AF. “The natural guide to medicinal herbs and plants”. Tiger books International, London (1998): 12-16.
  16. “Artemisinin resistance and artemisinin-based combination therapy efficacy”. Global Malaria programme/Status report (2018): 1-6.
  17. Alexei AL., et al. “Development antioxidant and cardioprotective effect of coconut water against Doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy”. Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University2 (2009): 37-41.
  18. Mohamed EM., et al. “Retrospective study of small pet tumors treated with Artemisia annua and iron”. Spanclidos Publications (2019): 123-138.
  19. Raghav SK., et al. “Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-inducible nitric oxide synthase and Il-1B through suppression of NF-kB activation by 3 (1-1dimethyl-allyl)-6-hydoxyl-7-methoxy-coumarin isolated from Ruta graveolens L”. European Journal of Pharmacology 560 (2007): 69-80.
  20. Ferreira JFS., et al. “Flavonoids from Artemisia annua L. as antioxidant and their potential synergism with artemisinin against malaria and cancer”. Molecules 15 (2020): 3135-3170.
  21. Russo EB. “History of Cannabis as medicine: Nineteenth Century Irish physicans and correlation of their observations to modern research in Cannabis sativa Botany and Biotechnology, Berlin, Germany”. (2007): 66-78.
  22. Fishbein M., et al. “Long-term behavioral and biochemical effects of an ultra-low dose of tetracannabinol; neuroprotection and ERK signaling”. Experimental Brain Research 221 (2012): 437-448.
  23. Schweinsburg AD., et al. “The influence of marijuana use on neurocognition in adolescents and young adults”. Current Drug Abuse Revision 1 (2008): 99-111.
  24. Mechoulam R., et al. “Cannabidiol: an overview of some pharmacological aspects”. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 42 (2002): 11s-19s.
  25. Wang M., et al. “Quantitative determination of cannabinoids in Cannabis and Cannabis products using ultra-high-performance supercritical fluid chromatography and diode array/mass spectrometric detection”. Journal of Forensic Science3 (2017): 602-611.
  26. Zivovinovic S., et al. “Determination of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa samples for recreational, medical, and forensic purposes by reversed-phase liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection”. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology 3.5 (2018): 49-59.

Citation

Citation: Ejembi Patricia E., et al. “Evaluation of the Divergent Phytochemicals Contained in Aqueous Leaves Extracts of Artemisia annua L. var chiknensis and Cannabis sativa L. Using HPLC and GC-MS Analytical Protocols". Acta Scientific Microbiology 6.5 (2023): 07-14.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 Ejembi Patricia E., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In






News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US