Evaluation of the Divergent
Phytochemicals Contained in Aqueous Leaves Extracts of Artemisia annua L.
var chiknensis and Cannabis sativa L. Using HPLC and GC-MS Analytical Protocols
Ejembi Patricia E1*, Chike IC Ogbonna1, Ogbonna Abigail I1, James O Ejembi2
and Olukose J Shola2
1Applied Microbiology Unit, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos, Nigeria
2Department of General Surgery, Federal Medical Center Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria
3Department of Laboratory Services, Faith Alive Foundation, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Ejembi Patricia E, Applied Microbiology Unit, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos, Nigeria.
March 13, 2023; Published: April 04, 2023
Objective: To investigate the biochemical constituents and antioxidant status of aqueous leaves extracts of Artemisia annua and Cannabis sativa.
Methods: Phytochemical screening and antioxidant assay of the crude extracts of experimental plants was carried out to identify the various bioactive constituents and the antioxidants scavenging activities of extracts. Furthermore, the phytocomplex components present in the crude aqueous extracts were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography - mass spectroscopy (GC.MS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging activities respectively.
Results: The High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of aqueous leaf extract of Artemisia annua, revealed the presence of artemisinic acid (2.446), dihydroartemisinin (3.965), artemisinin (6.171) and deoxartemisinin (7.808) while Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the presence of 43 constituents with Deoxyquinghaosu (8.46%), Benzene (5.15%), 4,8-Dihydroximino-4 (3.38%), Scopoletin (3.66%) and Coumarin (1.01%) as the major constituents. Similarly, cannabidiol (CBD) (3.461), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) (3.620) and Delta-9 Tetrahydro Cannabinol (THC) (6.598) were detected in the aqueous leaf extract of Cannabis sativa, through HPLC while the results from GC-MS of aqueous leaf extract of Cannabis sativa revealed 29 biochemical constituents with the following as the major ones; Butanoic acid (6.27%), Cyclopentasiloxane (4.03%), Cyclohexasiloxane (5.11%), Cycloheptasiloxane (9.54%), Cyclooctasiloxane (5.21%), Decahydronaphtho [2,3-b]furan-2-one (6.75%), Trimethyl[4-(1-methyl-1-methoxyethyl) phenoxy]silane (4.65%), Arsenous acid (4.37%) and Acetamide (5.89%) but Cannabiniods were not detected. Additionally, the aqueous leaf extract of A. annua showed a higher antioxidant activity compared with C. sativa.
Conclusion: Many of these phytocomponents have antidiabetic, antitumor, antihypertensive, heart rate reducing, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory activities which justify why both experimental plants are employed in alleviating human ailments and other industrial purposes.
Keywords: Artemisia annua; Cannabis sativa; Phytocomponents; Antioxidant Activity
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