Explosive Volcanism Periodicity Past Cycles Record within the Last 0.8 Mya Evidenced by Tephra and Benthic Foraminifera of IODP Hole U1485AA (Exp. 363 WPWP)
Patricia Beck Eichler-Barker1,2*
1Laboratory of Marine Geology and Geophysics and Environmental Monitoring (GGEMMA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Brazil
2EcoLogicProject.com, Boulder Creek, California, USA
*Corresponding Author: Patricia Beck Eichler-Barker, Laboratory of Marine Geology and Geophysics and Environmental Monitoring (GGEMMA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Brazil and EcoLogicProject.com, Boulder Creek, California, USA.
January 02, 2023; Published: February 06, 2023
Volcanic eruptions with increase in the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other gases are responsible for the extinction of many species because of decreased pH and carbonate availability which creates ocean acidification. Here we show how benthic foraminifera have evolved, by studying sediments from U1485A (1145 m water depth) core in the Papua New Guinea (PNG) collected during IODP Expedition 363 in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), one of the warmest marine waters of the world. High-stressed environments dominated by low diversity of opportunistic species after volcanic activity was detected by the presence of tephra and volcanic ashes within the last 0.8 Mya. The decrease in the diversity patterns show an inverse correlation to the presence of tephra and ash right after Pleistocene volcanic eruptions in the past. Deep-water fauna is dominated by Cibicidoides pachiderma, from the early Oligocene through the Pleistocene, Uvigerina hispida from early Miocene through Pleistocene, U. prosbocidae from late Oligocene through Pleistocene, and an outer neritic upper bathyal Uvigerina mediterranea from high salinities, warm waters, low dissolved oxygen, and high organic matter. Bolivinita quadrilatera characteristic of 200-500m depth, Bolivina robusta from 3 to 900m, and the Rotalinoides compressiusculus, a shallow warm water species, from 2-37m depth show higher diversity peaks in interglacial cycles. High-stress conditions with mass extinction after volcanic eruptions leads to enhanced weathering, global warming and cooling afterwards, and ocean acidification, resulting in a crisis in the marine environment in terms of carbonate. Diversity gradients suggested that foraminiferal species responded to the cyclic pulses of volcanic eruptions, and its unstable ecological conditions created by the increase in the temperature and CO2. Here we show that tephra layers and ash record a periodicity of explosive volcanism within the last 0.8 Myr maintaining a strong 100 kyr periodicity, and that earth’s orbital cycles might trigger peaks of volcanic eruptions 41,000-year cycle.
Keywords: Volcanic Eruptions; Extinctions; Organic Material; Temperature; Climate Change; Paleoclimatology; Benthic; Planktonic Foraminiferal Community Dynamics
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