Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 2

Detection of Panton – Valentine Leukocidin Toxin by Polymerase Chain Reaction in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcal aureus Isolates

Krithikaa Sekar*

Faculty of Medicine, Sri Lalithambigai Medical College and Hospital, Unit of MGR Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, India

*Corresponding Author: Krithikaa Sekar, Faculty of Medicine, Sri Lalithambigai Medical College and Hospital, Unit of MGR Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, India.

Received: December 12, 2022; Published: January 06, 2023


Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen causing a diversity of life–threatening systemic infections. The MRSA is known to have high probability of PVL toxin gene. The frequency of PVL-producing MRSA in various clinical samples were detected by PCR.

Methods: 218 MRSA isolates from heterogeneous clinical samples received in microbiology laboratory were processed to detect mecA and PVL gene by PCR.

Results: In the present study, out of 218 isolates, 192 were mecA positive by PCR. Of the 192 mecA positive isolates, 104 (54.16%) samples were positive for PVL toxin.

Conclusion: The PCR system used in the study is specific for the mec A and PVL. This may lead to specific therapeutic approaches targeting PVL in severe PVL-related staphylococcal syndromes.

Keywords: MRSA; Mec A; PVL Toxin; PCR


  1. Denis O., et al. “Emergence of Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in a Belgian hospital, Microbiological and clinical features”. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 50 (2002): 383-391.
  2. Mohanasoundaram KM and Lalitha MK. “Comparison of phenotypic versus genotypic methods in the detection of Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus”. Indian Journal of Medical Research 127 (2008): 78-84.
  3. Pulimood TB., et al. “The spectrum of anti-microbial resistance among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care center in India”. Indian Journal of Medical Research 103 (1996): 212-215.
  4. Mathur SK., et al. “Prevalence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care hospital”. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 12 (1994): 96-101.
  5. Pal N and Ayyagari A. “Drug resistance pattern of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus”. Indian Paediatric 28 (1991): 725-727.
  6. Badiou C., et al. “Rapid Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine Leukocidin in Clinical Specimens by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Immunochromatographic Tests”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 48 (2010): 1384-1390.
  7. Baba T., et al. “Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA”. Lancet 359 (2020): 1819-1827.
  8. Panton PN., et al. “Staphylococcal Toxin". The Lancet 1 (2007): 506-508.
  9. Vavra SB and Daum RS. “Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the role of Panton–Valentine leucocidin”. Laboratory Investigation1: 3-9.
  10. , et al. “Effect of purified staphylococcal leukocidal toxins on isolated blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and peritoneal macrophages in vitro”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 45:1550-1558; 88:383-394.
  11. , et al. “Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin directly targets mitochondria and induces Bax-independent apoptosis of human neutrophils”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 115 (2005): 3117-3127.
  12. Hamilton S M., et al. “In vitro production of Panton-Valentine leukocidin among strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing diverse infections”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 45 (2007): 1550-1558.
  13. Prajna P and Vishwanath G. “Study of Vancomycin susceptibility in MRSA isolated from various clinical samples”. Thesis; Rajiv Gandhi University of Health science (2007).
  14. Siddiq F and Masood M. “Antibiogram sensitivity pattern of Methicillin resistant aureus isolates from pus samples”. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 55 (2002): 491-493.
  15. Tandel K., et al. “Differences in Vancomycin MIC among MRSA isolates by agar dilution and E test method”. IJMM 4 (2012): 453-455.
  16. Saderi H., et al. “Vancomycin resistance among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus”. Archives of Iranian Medicine 2 (2005): 272-278.
  17. Tiwari HK and Sen MR. “Emergence of Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) from a tertiary care hospital from northern part of India”. BMC Infectious Diseases 6 (2006): 156.
  18. Bouguessa NM., et al. “Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Resistant to Multiple Antibiotics and Carrying the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Genes in an Algiers Hospital”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 29:1128-1132.
  19. Kaur H., et al. “Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections and Evaluation of PVL Producing Strains in Belgaum, South India”. Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University2 (2012): 56-61.
  20. Souza ND., et al. “Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Emergence of Epidemic Clones of Sequence Type (ST) 22 and ST 772 in Mumbai, India”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 5 (2010): 1806-1811.
  21. Gillet Y and Lyon. “PVL Associated Infections: an overview: Guidelines for patient management”. 14th International Symposium on Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections (ISSSI) Bath, 6-9 September, (2010).
  22. Cribier B., et al. “Staphylococcus aureus leukocidin: a new virulence factor in cutaneous infections? An epidemiological and experimental study”. Dermatology 185 (1992): 175-180.
  23. Ward P D and W H Turner. “Identification of staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin as a potent dermonecrotic toxin”. Infection and Immunity 28 (1980): 393-397.
  24. Diep B A., et al. “2009 Panton-Valentine leukocidin determines the virulence of USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a rabbit model of fulminant necrotizing, hemorrhagic pneumonia”. 49th Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC. abstr. (2009): B-1087.


Citation: Krithikaa Sekar. “Detection of Panton – Valentine Leukocidin Toxin by Polymerase Chain Reaction in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcal aureus Isolates". Acta Scientific Microbiology 6.2 (2023): 22-26.


Copyright: © 2022 Krithikaa Sekar. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US