Bacteriological Profile and Proximate Composition of Raw Milk from Different Cow Breeds in Amansea Cow Market, Anambra State, Nigeria
Douglas Salome Ibietela*, Sampson Tonye and Onwufor Chizoba
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Douglas Salome Ibietela, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
November 28, 2022; Published: December 27, 2022
Raw cow milk, once it is produced from the udder is vulnerable to contamination from spoilage bacteria and food-borne diseases. This study was carried out to evaluate the bacteriological profile and proximate composition of raw milk from different cow breeds in Amansea Cow Market, Anambra State. A total of 27 raw cow milk samples from three different breeds of cow which include Bokolo, Chekpe, and Turuku breeds were collected for this study and were subjected to standard Microbiological and laboratory procedures to analyze the samples. The results revealed that the highest mean for Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Counts was observed in the Turuku breed as 8.06 ± 1.9x106 cfu/ml, while the lowest mean for Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Counts was observed in the Chekpe breed as 5.46 ± 0.12x106cfu/ml. Total Coliform Count had the highest value recorded for the Bukulo breed as 6.73 ± 1.11x106cfu/ml, while the lowest Total Coliform Count was recorded for the Chekpe breed as 4.43 ± 0.25x106cfu/ml. The Feacal Coliform Count had the highest value recorded for the Turuku breed as 17.0 ± 3.9x104cfu/ml, while the lowest mean for Feacal Coliform Count was recorded for the Chekpe breed with a value of 15.58 ± 4.70x104 cfu/ml. Four (4) bacterial isolates were identified based on morphological and biochemical characterization, which include Staphylococcus aureus (48.1%), Escherichia coli (48.1%), Klebsiella spp. (44.4%) and Bacillus spp. (18.5%). The identification of these bacterial isolates indicates microbiological contamination and the likely presence of pathogens that are harmful to human health. Results of the proximate analysis showed that parameters such as moisture content ranged from 83.72% to 85.22%, 1.85% to 2.47% for fat content, 6.43% to 7.95% for carbohydrate content, 4.62% to 5.19% for crude protein and 1.01% to 1.21% for ash content. The bacteriological analysis of the raw milk samples showed a high bacterial load in the various breeds which was higher than the regulatory standards for milk consumption. The proximate composition of the raw milk samples was within the acceptable limit. The prevalence of these bacterial species that have the potential to cause food-borne infections are quite concerning for public health. This research demonstrated that direct consumption of raw milk is not safe as a result of bacterial contamination and thus can lead to health challenges. Since the consumption of raw milk is in high demand, handlers should be trained and educated on proper milking procedures and storage to reduce the risk of milk contamination.
Keywords: Bacterial Isolates; Raw Cow Milk; Bokolo Breed; Chekpe Breed; Turuku Breed; Proximate Composition
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