Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 12

Optimization of Physical Parameters for Bioconversion of Glycyrrhizin into 18α-glycyrrhetinic Acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic Acid Using Response Surface Methodology

Makhmur Ahmad1, Ambika Chamoli2 and Bibhu Prasad Panda2*

1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Buraydah, Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2Microbial and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Laboratory, Center for Advanced Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India

*Corresponding Author: Bibhu Prasad Panda, Associate Professor (Pharmaceutical Biotechnology), Microbial and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Laboratory, Center for Advanced Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Received: November 14, 2022; Published: November 22, 2022


Therapeutic constituents in the medicinal plants have always been copious in nature that yield useful phytomolecules. One such plant is licorice which is scientifically known as Glycyrrhiza glabra and belongs to the Fabaceae family. It is interesting to note that Glycyrrhiza has been traditionally utilized in a variety of polyherbal formulations in Japan, known as Kampo medicine. Glycyrrhizin is one of the main constituents of Glycyrrhiza glabra which can be biotransformed into biologically and pharmacologically active 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid simultaneously. Different levels of physical parameters (temperature, pH and time) was optimized by central composite design (central rotatory) of response surface methodology for the production of hydrolytic unit. Maximum hydrolytic unit of 15.678 HU/ml was predicted at an optimum value of temperature 35ºC, pH 7.8 and time 45 min using response surface plots and point prediction tool of software Design Expert (Stat-Ease Inc., USA).

Keywords: Glycyrrhizin; 18α-glycyrrhetinic Acid; 18β-glycyrrhetinic Acid; Optimization; Central Composite Design; Response Surface Methodology


  1. Chopra R N., et al. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants”. New Delhi, NISCAIR, CSIR, (2002): 1956-1992.
  2. Shah S L., et al. “Inhibitory effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra and its major constituent glycyrrhizin on inflammation-associated corneal neovascularization”. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2018 (2018): 1-8.
  3. Wu X., et al. “Prevention of free fatty acid-induced hepatic lipotoxicity by 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid through lysosomal and mitochondrial pathways”. Lipotoxicity 47 (2008): 1905-1915.
  4. Wang C Y., et al. “Glycyrrhizic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid modulate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by suppression of NF-κB through PI3K p110δ and p110γ inhibitions”. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 59 (2011): 7726-7733.
  5. Rossum V T., et al. “Glycyrrhizin as a potential treatment for chronic hepatitis C”. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 12 (1998): 199-205.
  6. Fenwick G R., et “Liquorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. composition, uses and analysis”. Food Chemistry 38 (1990): 119-143.
  7. Dandekar A., et al. “Cross-talk between ER stress, oxidative stress, and inflammation in health and disease”. Methods in Molecular Biology 1292 (2015): 205-214.
  8. Dhingra D., et al. “Memory enhancing activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in mice”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 91 (2004): 361-365.
  9. Ikarashi Y and Mizoguchi K. “Neuropharmacological efficacy of the traditional Japanese Kampo medicine yokukansan and its active ingredients”. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 166 (2016): 84-95.
  10. Feng S J., et al. “Screening strains for directed biosynthesis of β-D-mono-glucuronide-glycyrrhizin and kinetics of enzyme production”. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic 43 (2006): 63-67.
  11. Zeng C X., et al. “A comparison of the distribution of two glycyrrhizic acid epimers in rat tissues”. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 31 (2006): 253-258.
  12. Ha Y M., et al. “Chiral separation of glycyrrhetinic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography”. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 9 (1991): 805-809.
  13. Rossi T., et al. “Selectivity of action of glycyrrhizin derivatives on the growth of MCF-7 and HEP-2 cells”. Anticancer Research 23 (2003): 3813-3818.
  14. Amagaya S., et al. “Comparative studies of the stereoisomers of glycyrrhetinic acid on anti-inflammatory activities”. Journal of Pharmacobiodynamics 7 (1984): 923-928.
  15. Wang J., et al. “Bioconversion of glycyrrhizinic acid in liquorice into 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid by Aspergillus parasiticus Speare BGB”. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology 46 (2010): 421-466.
  16. Morana A., et al. “Enzymatic production of 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid glabra L”. Biotechnology Letters 24 (2002): 1907-1911.
  17. Ahmad M and BP Panda. “Alginate Immobilization of Escherichia coliMTCC 1652 whole cells for bioconversion of glycyrrhizinic acid and into 18-β glycyrrhetinic acid”. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 16 (2013): 2046-2049.
  18. Chamoli A., et al. “Simultaneous determination of 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in Glycyrrhiza glabra root by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography”. Drug Development and Therapeutics 7 (2016): 59-62.
  19. Wang Z Y., et al. “Inhibition of mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and skin tumor initiating and tumor promoting activities in SENCAR mice by glycyrrhetinic acid: comparison of 18-alpha and 18-beta stereoisomers”. Carcinogenesis 12 (1991): 187-192.
  20. Spizzizen J., et al. “Biochemical studies on the phenomenon of virus reproduction: III. The inhibition of coliphage T2r+ multiplication by sodium salicylate and sodium gentisate”. Journal of Bacteriology 62 (1951): 323-329.
  21. Chang Y C., et al, “Statistical optimization of medium components for the production of Antrodia cinnamomeca AC0623 in submerged cultures”. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 72 (2006): 654- 661.
  22. Sukkasem D., et al. “Combined effect of crude herbal extracts, pH and sucrose on the survival of Candida parapsilosis and Zygosaccharomyces fermentati in orange juice”. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 29 (207): 793-800.
  23. Nimnoi and Lumyong S. “Improving solid-state fermentation of Monascus purpureus on agricultural products from pigment production”. Food and Bioprocess Technology 4 (2011): 1384-1390.
  24. Chakravarti R and Sahai V. “Optimization of compactin production in chemically defined medium by Penicilium citrinum using statistical methods”. Process Biochemistry 38 (2002): 481-486.
  25. Sayyad S A., et al. “Optimization of nutrient parameters for lovastatin production by Monascus purpureus MTCC 369 under submerged fermentation using response surface methodology”. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 73 (2007): 1054-1058.
  26. Aich S., et al. “Purification of Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase”. Protein Expression and Purification 22 (2001): 75-81.
  27. Kondo M., et al. “Physiochemical properties and applications of α and β glycyrrhizins, natural surface active agents in licorice root extract”. Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemist 37 (1986): 177‑1
  28. Amin H A S., et al. “Biosynthesis of glycyrrhetinic acid 3-O-mono- β-d-glucuronide by free and immobilized Aspergillus terreus β-d-glucuronidase”. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic 69 (2011): 54-59.
  29. Walia N K., el al. “Optimization of fermentation parameters for bioconversion of corn to ethanol using response surface methodology”. Journal of Petroleum and Environmental Biotechnology 5 (2014): 178-185.


Citation: Bibhu Prasad Panda., et al. “Optimization of Physical Parameters for Bioconversion of Glycyrrhizin into 18α-glycyrrhetinic Acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic Acid Using Response Surface Methodology". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.12 (2022): 85-92.


Copyright: © 2022 Bibhu Prasad Panda., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

Contact US