Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 12

Biochemical Composition and Effects of Aqueous Extracts of the Leaf, Stem and Root of Securidaca longipedunculata Fresen (Violet Tree) on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Ogbonna AI1*, Madu JM2, Onyimba IA3, Ogbonna USA4, Ejembi EP1, Nwibari BMW5, Tanko JS6, Peter MK7, Ogbonna CIC1, Azi S8 and Damen MT1

1Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos, Nigeria

2National Biotechnology Development Agency, Lugbe, Airport Road, Abuja, Nigeria

3Department of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Jos, Nigeria

4Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

5Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Nigeria

6Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Nigeria

7Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry, Jos, Nigeria

8Department of Pharmacology, University of Jos, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Ogbonna AI, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Jos, Nigeria.

Received: October 10, 2022; Published: November 07, 2022


Studies were carried out on the effects of aqueous leaf, stem bark and root extracts of Securidaca longipedunculata. Fresen (violet tree) on diabetic albino rats. The powdered plant parts were extracted using water as solvent and using maceration method. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the biochemical components of the plant parts were carried out using standard methods. The acute toxicity study was conducted using 24 albino rats for each plant part. The effects of aqueous leaf, stem bark and root extracts of S. longipedunculata (200 mg/kg) on blood glucose in normoglycemic and alloxan diabetic rats were also investigated using 25 albino wistar rats. Two mls of each of the extracts were administered orally twice daily for 3 weeks after diabetic induction and the blood glucose level was measured on daily basis using On-call-plus glucometer. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by comparing the initial blood glucose level with that of the treated and standard. The screening of the aqueous extracts of the plant parts for biochemical composition revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites of pharmacological significance including alkaloids (15-18.40 mg/kg), cardiac glycosides (23.30-26.10 mg/kg), flavonoids (23.58-31.05 mg/kg), saponins (215.60-270.59 mg/kg) and tannins (314.76-339.75 mg/kg) with tannins and saponins in larger quantities. The leaf, stem and root extracts were found to have LD50 value of 490 mg/kg, 693 mg/kg and 693 mg/kg body weight respectively. The plant part extracts showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction of Blood Glucose Concentration (BGC) of 3.47, 3.96 and 4.03 mmol/dl for leaf, stem bark and root extracts respectively after the treatment period indicating that S. longipedunculata has hypoglycemic activity.

Keywords: Securidaca longipedunculata; Biochemical Components; Diabetic; Albino Rats; Extracts


  1. Shoback DG and Gardner D. “Chapter 17”. Green span’s basic and endocrinology (9th ed). New York: McGraw- Hill Medical. Textbook of diabetes mellitus (Rev. 2nd ed) Jay Pee Brothers Medical Publishers (2011): 235.
  2. WHO: “Diabetes” (2022).
  3. World Health Organization “About Diabetes” Archived from the original on 05 September, (2018).
  4. Samreen R. “Diabetes Mellitus Scientific Research and Essay”. 4.5 (2009): 367-373.
  5. Cooke DW and Plotnick L. “Type 1 Diabetes mellitus in pediatrics” Pediatrics in Review11 (2008): 374-84.
  6. Rockfeller JD. “Diabetes symptoms, causes, treatment and prevention”. 2015).
  7. Ojewole JAO. “Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Hypoglyceamic Effects of Securidaca longipedunculata (Fresen) (Polygalaceae) Root bark Aqueous Extract. Inflammopharmacology 4 (2008): 174-181.
  8. Iwu MM. “African ethnomedicine”. CECTA Nig. Ltd., Enugu, (1986): 34-37.
  9. Ndou AP. ‘’Securidaca longipedunculata’’. South Africa National Biodiversity Institute., Aug (2006): Web. 20 Nov. 2013.
  10. Yang XD., et al. “Two new xanthones from stems of Securidaca longipedunculata”. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 45 (2003): 365-368.
  11. Trease GE and Evans WC. “Pharmacognosy”. 13 ed. Britain: Tindal; (1989).
  12. Sofowora A. “Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. New York, London (1993): 143-145.
  13. Harborne JB “Plant Biochemistry”. Eds. P.M Dey and J.B Harborne. Publ. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA (1997): 571.
  14. Sofowora EA. “Medicinal plant and traditional medicine in Africa”. 2nd Ibadan: John Wiley; pp. (1982): 55-62.
  15. Biradar SR and Rachetti BD. “Extraction of Some Secondary Metabolites and Thin Layer Chromatography from Different Parts of Centella asiatica L. (URB)”. American Journal of Life Science6 (2013): 243.
  16. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). “Official Method of Analysis of the AOAC” (W. Horwitz Editor) Thirteenth Edition. Washington D.C, (1980): AOAC.
  17. Krishnaiah D., et al. “Studies on phytochemical constituents of six Malaysian medicinal plants”. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research2 (2009): 67-72.
  18. AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). “Official Method of Analysis of the AOAC” (W. Horwitz Editor) Eighteenth Edition. Washighton D.C, (2006): AOAC.
  19. Kaur R., et al. “Quantitative and qualitative analysis of saponins in different plant parts of Chlorophytum borivialum”. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 1 (2015): 826-835.
  20. Okeke CU and Elekwa I. “Comparative hypoglycemic effects of three Nigerian vegetable spices, Gongronema latifolium Benth, Allium sativum and Ocimum gratissmium Linn, on alloxan induced diabetic rats”. Nigerian Journal of Botany1 (2006): 138-146.
  21. Lorke D. “A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing”. Archives of Toxicology 53 (1983): 275-287.
  22. Sanusi J., et al. “Efficacy of Securidaca longepedunculata on the parameters of blood glucose level and pulse rate of envenomed albino rats”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research12 (2016): 4805-4811.
  23. Baker CJ. “Baker and Silvertions Introduction to Medical Laboratory Technology in Organic Chemistry”. (7th ed) Butter worth Heinmann Oxford (1998): 448.
  24. Marella S. “Flavonoids-the most potent poly-phenols as antidiabetic agents: an overview”. Modern Approach in Drug Designing3 (2017): MADD.000513.
  25. Naim A., et al. “The effect of antidiabetic combination of aqueous extracts of salam leaves (Stevia rebaudiana) and bitter leaves (Andrographis folium) in white male mice”. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 8.10 (2018): 1446-1450.
  26. Ajiboye AT., et al. “The role of plant natural products in diabetes drug discovery and development: A report with focus on Nigerian biodiversity”. Presented at Society for Endocrinology BES 2016, Harrogate, UK. Endocrine Abstracts 43PL1 (2016): OC46.
  27. Ghosh T., et al. “Antihyperglycemic Activity of Bacosine, a Triterpene from Bacopa Monnieri, in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats”. Planta Medica 77 (2011): 804-808.
  28. Joseph B and Jini D. “Antidiabetic Effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) and its Medicinal Potency”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 3 (2013): 93-102.
  29. Al-Amin ZM., et al. “AntiDiabetic and Hypolipidaemic Properties of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats”. British Journal of Nutrition 96 (2006): 660-666.
  30. Shibano M., et al. “Two New Pyrrolidine Alkaloids, Radicamines A and B as Inhibitors of Alpha Glucosidase from Lobelia chinensis”. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 49 (2001): 1362-1365.
  31. Auwal SM., et al. “Phytochemical Composition and Acute Toxicity Evaluation of Aqueous Root Bark Extract of Securidaca longipedunculata”. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences2 (2001): 67-72.
  32. Tailang M and Sharma AK. “Phytochemistry; Theory and Practicals”. 1st Birla publications pvt. Ltd., India (2009): 15-39.
  33. Hodge and Sterner Scale. “Toxicity Classes. In Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety” (2005): Copy right © 1997-2010.
  34. Bulus T., et al. “Acute Toxicity Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Terminalia avicennioides on white albino rats”. Science World Journal2 (2011): 1-4.
  35. Kagbo HD and Ejebe DE. “Phytochemistry and preliminary toxicity studies of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Garcinia kola”. Internet Journal of Toxicology 7.2 (2010): 1-16.
  36. Yehya AHS., et al. “Toxicological studies of Orthosiphon stamineus (Misai Kucing) standardized ethanol extract in combination with gemcitabine”. Journal of Advanced Research 15 (2018): 59-68.
  37. Chaudhry SR., et al. “Antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic effects of Heliotropium strigosum in rat models of Type I and Type II diabetes”. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica 73.6 (2016): 1575-1586.
  38. Stumvoll M., et al. “Metabolic effects of metformin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus”. New England Journal of Medicine 333.9 (1995): 550e554.
  39. Knowler WC., et al. “Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin” New England Journal of Medicine6 (2002): 393e403.
  40. Alam S., et al. “Antidiabetic Phytochemicals from Medicinal Plants: Prospective Candidates for New Drug Discovery and Development”. Frontiers in Endocrinology 13 (2022): 800714.
  41. Onyeche OC and Kolawale JA. “Preliminary screening of aqueous extract of the leaves of Securidaca longipedunculata (Linn) for anti-hyperglycemic property”. Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2 (2005): 18-21.
  42. Marles RJ and Farnsworth NR. “Antidiabetic plants and their active constituents”. Phytomedicine 2 (1995): 137-189.
  43. Taïwe GS., et al. “Antipyretic and antinociceptive effects of Nauclea latifolia root decoction and possible mechanisms of action”. Pharmaceutical Biology1 (2011): 15-25.
  44. Panda S and Kar A. “Apigenin (4’,5,7-Trihydroxyflavone) Regulates Hyperglycaemia, Thyroid Dysfunction and Lipid Peroxidation in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice”. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology11 (2007): 1543-1548.
  45. Gupta R., et al. “Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa Oleifera in Experimental Diabetes”. Journal of Diabetes2 (2012): 164-171.
  46. Gyang SS., et al. “Hypoglycaemic activity of Vernonia amygdalina (chloroform extract) in normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats”. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources 1.1 (2004): 61-66.
  47. Atangwho IJ., et al. “Effect of Vernonia amygdalina on liver function in alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats”. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources 4 (2007): 27-31.
  48. Ebong PE., et al. “The antidiabetic efficacy of combined extracts from two continental plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) (Neem) and Vernonia amygdalina (Del.) (African Bitter Leaf)”. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 4 (2008): 239-244.
  49. Osinubi AA. “Effects of Vernonia amygdalina and chlorpropamide on blood glucose”. Medical Journal of Islamic World Academy of Sciences 16.3 (2008): 115-119.
  50. Paul A and Raychaudhuri SS. “Medicinal uses and molecular identification of two Momordica charantia varieties-A review”. Electronic Journal of Biology2 (2010): 43-51.
  51. Kim K and Kim HY. ”Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extract suppresses cytokine induced activation of MAPK and NF-κB in pancreatic β-cells”. Food Science and Biotechnology 20 (2011): 531-535.
  52. Poovitha S and Parani M. “In Vitro and in Vivo α-amylase and α-glucosidase Inhibiting Activities of the Protein Extracts from Two Varieties of Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia)”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 16.1 (2016): 185.
  53. Ogbonna CIC., et al. “Combined Anti-Diabetic Effects of Extracts of Artemisia annua chiknensis (CBGE/CHNA/09/LTNGS/G) and Each of Three Other Plants (Momordica charantia Linn. Vernonia amygdalina Del. and Aegle marmelos Correa) Traditionally Used in Nigeria for the Treatment of Diabetes” Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 16.2 (2017): 1-12.
  54. Sampath C., et al. “Specific Bioactive Compounds in Ginger and Apple Alleviate Hyperglycemia in Mice with High Fat Diet Induced Obesity via Nrf2 Mediated Pathway”. Food Chemistry 226 (2017): 79-88.
  55. Esser N., et al. “Inflammation as a Link Between Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice2 (2014): 141-150.


Citation: Ogbonna AI., et al. “Biochemical Composition and Effects of Aqueous Extracts of the Leaf, Stem and Root of Securidaca longipedunculata Fresen (Violet Tree) on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.12 (2022): 12-22.


Copyright: © 2022 Ogbonna AI., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US