Seroepidemiological Evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii Immunity and Relationship with White Blood Cells and Haemoglobin Levels Among HIV-positive and HIV-negative Subjects in the North West Region of Cameroon
Oumar Mahamat, Nosimbang Golda Pingpoh, Lem Edith Abongwa and Ntonifor Helen Ngum*
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon
*Corresponding Author: Ntonifor Helen Ngum, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon.
August 28, 2022; Published: October 21, 2022
Background: This study aimed at determining the impact of Toxoplasma gondii infection on certain haematological indices in HIV-infected and non-infected persons.
Method: The cross-sectional study was carried out between January-June 2021 at the Bamenda Regional Hospital and Bambui District Hospital in Northwest Cameroon with 320 participants. Venous blood was collected to measure haemoglobin concentrations, leucocyte, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts and to determine the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM using Rapid anti-T. gondii test cassettes.
Results: The seroprevalence of Anti-T. gondii IgG and T. gondii IgM were 40% and 3.4% respectively. T. gondii was more prevalent in non-HIV-infected individuals (41.7%). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were significantly higher in HIV positive (p = 0.035). In HIV-positive participants, the highest prevalence of T. gondii IgM 6.5% (4⁄62) and T. gondii IgG 38.7% (24⁄62) was found among those aged 25-40 years, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.811). A significant relationship (P = 0.039) was observed between gender on the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG in HIV-positive individuals with males having a higher risk. Blood counts showed no significant different (p > 0.05) between T. gondii positive and negative patients thought it was high in patients who were negative for T. gondii. On the contrary, blood cell counts were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in HIV positive patient with T. gondii.
Absolute leukocytosis (1.33%) and leukopenia (33.33%) were higher in HIV-positive patients infected with T. gondii. HIV participants with Toxoplasma had an insignificant (p = 0.64) lower haemoglobin level (13.10 g/dl) when compared to those without Toxoplasma (13.44 g/dl).
Conclusion: Toxoplasma. gondii is prevalent in the Northwest Region of Cameroon with a higher prevalence in HIV non-infected individuals than HIV-infected patients. The presence of this parasite in HIV patients significantly affects the haematological indices.
Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii; HIV; IgG; IgM; Haemoglobin; White Blood Cells Bamenda
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