Optimization of the Growth Condition and Molecular Identification of Two Bacterial Isolates from Egyptian Agricultural Wastes
Khaled Abuelhaded1,2*, Mohamed Ahmed El Howeity2, AM Nofal1 and Gehad H Zanoun3
1Environmental Studies and Researches Institute University of Sadat City, Sadat City, Egypt
2School of Biotechnology, Badr University in Cairo, Badr City, Cairo, Egypt
3Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Egypt
*Corresponding Author: Khaled Abuelhaded, Environmental Studies and Researches Institute University of Sadat City, Sadat City, Egypt.
July 27, 2022; Published: August 09, 2022
Bacteria that produce cellulase were isolated from rice straw and sugarcane straw and screened using the Congo Red technique. 16S rDNA analysis was used to identify the highly cellulolytic isolates. CH1-Rice has homology with Brevibacillus sp., while CH5-Sugarcane has homology with Klebsiella variicol, according to phylogenetic tree analysis of their 16S rDNA gene sequencing information’s. Bacterial optimum growth conditions were adjusted by manipulating nutritional and environmental parameters as temperature, pH, cellulose concentration, incubation time, salinity, and different carbon sources. The activity was estimated by measuring the turbidity of bacteria with a spectrophotometer. In conclusion, Two different bacterial strains were discovered and isolated, and the optimal growth conditions for each were identified. These strains might be employed to transform plant waste into more beneficial substances.
Keywords: 16S rRNA; Cellulose Degrading Bacteria; Optimization; Saccharification; Bioethanol; Renewable Energy; Biodegradation
- Altschul Stephen F., et al. "Basic local alignment search tool”. Journal of Molecular Biology3 (1990): 403-410.
- Bakare M K., et al. "Purification and characterization of cellulase from the wild-type and two improved mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens”. African Journal of Biotechnology9 (2005).
- Bruce Thiago., et al. "Bacterial community diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest soils”. Microbial Ecology4 (2010): 840-849.
- Deka Deepmoni., et al. "Enhancement of cellulase activity from a new strain of Bacillus subtilis by medium optimization and analysis with various cellulosic substrates”. Enzyme Research2011 (2011).
- Dufey Annie. Biofuels production, trade and sustainable development: emerging issues. No. 2. Iied (2006).
- Eriksson Mikael., et al. "Effects of low temperature and freeze-thaw cycles on hydrocarbon biodegradation in Arctic tundra soil”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology11 (2001): 5107-5112.
- Faisal Muhammad and Aamer Saeed. "Sustainable approaches toward the production of bioethanol from biomass”. Sustainable Ethanol and Climate Change. Springer, Cham, (2021): 15-38.
- Frank Jeremy A., et al. "Critical evaluation of two primers commonly used for amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology8 (2008): 2461-2470.
- Fritsche Wolfgang and Martin Hofrichter. "Aerobic Degradation by Microorganisms: Biotechnology”. HJ Rehm, and G. Reed (2008): 145-155.
- Garg KL. "Effect of salinity on cellulolytic activity of some pneumatophore-inhabiting fungi of Sunderban mangrove swamps”. (1982).
- Garvey Megan., et al. "Cellulases for biomass degradation: comparing recombinant cellulase expression platforms”. Trends in Biotechnology10 (2013): 581-593.
- Gupta Pratima., et al. "Isolation of cellulose-degrading bacteria and determination of their cellulolytic potential”. International Journal of Microbiology2012 (2012).
- Jourdiera Etienne., et al. "Simple kinetic model of cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei for productivity or yield maximization”. Chemical Engineering27 (2012).
- Kamal Sajid., et al. "Insights on heterologous expression of fungal cellulases in Pichia pastoris”. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology1 (2018): 15-35.
- Kumar Sudhir., et al. "MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets”. Molecular Biology and Evolution7 (2016): 1870-1874.
- Kandakoglu Ahmet., et al. "Multicriteria decision making for sustainable development: A systematic review”. Journal of Multi‐Criteria Decision Analysis5-6 (2019): 202-251.
- Lee Sang-Mok and Yoon-Mo Koo. "Pilot-scale production of cellulase using Trichoderma Reesei rut C-30 fed-batch mode”. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology2 (2001): 229-233.
- Pushalkar Smruti., et al. "Production of β-glucosidase by Aspergillus terreus”. Current Microbiology5 (1995): 255-258.
- Ray Arun K., et al. "Optimization of fermentation conditions for cellulase production by Bacillus subtilis CY5 and Bacillus circulans TP3 isolated from fish gut”. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria1 (2007): 47-53.
- Rempel Alan., et al. "Bioethanol from Spirulina platensis biomass and the use of residuals to produce biomethane: an energy efficient approach”. Bioresource Technology288 (2019): 121588.
- Saraswati B., et al. "Cellulase production by Bacillus subtilis isolated from cow dung”. Archives of Applied Science Research1 (2012): 269-279.
- Smalley Richard Errett. "Top ten problems of humanity for next 50 years”. Energy and NanoTechnology Conference. Houston, TX: Rice University, (2003).
- Sambrook Joseph., et al. "Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual”. No. Ed. 2. Cold spring harbor laboratory press, (1989).
- Taherzadeh Mohammad J and Keikhosro Karimi. "Enzymatic-based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: A review”. BioResources4 (2007): 707-738.
- Teodoro Carlos Eduardo de Souza and Meire Lelis Leal Martins. "Culture conditions for the production of thermostable amylase by Bacillus sp”. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology31 (2000): 298-302.
- Teixeira da Silva Vanessa de Cássia., et al. "Effect of pH, temperature, and chemicals on the endoglucanases and β-glucosidases from the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica 2.1. 4. Obtained by solid-state and submerged cultivation”. Biochemistry Research International2016 (2016).
- Venosa Albert D and Xueqing Zhu. "Biodegradation of crude oil contaminating marine shorelines and freshwater wetlands”. Spill Science and Technology Bulletin2 (2003): 163-178.