Screening of Antimicrobial and Antidiabetic Activities of Native and Cultivated Medicinal Plants of India
Pavan Kumar Mujawdiya1,3, Pritee Pandey1, Rishabh Singh1, Shashwat Sharad2 and Suman Kapur1*
1Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Jawahar Nagar, Hyderabad, India
2Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Delhi, India
3Inochi Care Private Limited, New Delhi, India
*Corresponding Author: Suman Kapur, Senior Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad, India.
June 20, 2022; Published: July 29, 2022
Background and Objective: Chronic health complications such as obesity and diabetes are associated with disrupted energy balance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Traditional and alternative medicinal systems are used to manage obesity and diabetes due to the presence of several phytoconstituents such as polyphenol and flavonoids that possess anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties. In the present study, we have evaluated in vitro anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal properties of extracts of Azadirachta indica, Asparagus racemosus, Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Rheum palmatum.
Methods: Standard colorimetric methods were used for the estimation of total polyphenol, flavonoid, saponin, reducing sugar, glucose, and pentose sugar content. The anti-diabetic property was measured using α-glucosidase inhibition assay. Antibacterial activity was tested against gram negative bacterium Klebsiella sp. Antifungal activity was evaluated against common yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Results: It was observed that plant extracts greatly vary in their phytoconstituent and sugar content. The highest polyphenol and saponin contents were observed in Rosmarinus officinalis (2312 ± 59 µg/ml and 25423 ± 0 µg/ml, respectively), whereas Rheum palmatum showed the highest concentration of flavonoids (91125 ± 4009 µg/ml). The concentrations of total reducing sugar, glucose, and pentose sugars in all plant extracts were measured. Asparagus racemosus showed the highest concentration of reducing sugars, glucose and pentose sugars (7000 ± 149 µg/ml, 154.58 ± 5 µg/ml and 49906 ± 3052, respectively). All plant extracts displayed potent antidiabetic activity as reflected by in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition assay. In addition, all plant extracts showed cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity, indicating their potential role in the management of dyslipidemia. Moreover, all plant extracts showed powerful antimicrobial activities with certain plants inhibiting microbial growth of up to 100%.
Conclusions: The herbal extracts of Azadirachta indica, Asparagus racemosus, Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Rheum palmatum possess potent α-glucosidase inhibitory potential and may aid in reducing postprandial hyperglycemia in affected individuals. Furthermore, the cholesterol esterase inhibitory properties of these plant extracts may aid in the management of dyslipidemia. Finally, the antimicrobial properties against Klebsiella and Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that these plant extracts can be useful in managing bacterial and fungal infections and may act as lead molecules for the development of potent antimicrobial agents.
Keywords: Anti-diabetic; Hyperglycemia; Antibacterial; Antifungal; Plant Extracts
- Brown GC. “Living too long: the current focus of medical research on increasing the quantity, rather than the quality, of life is damaging our health and harming the economy”. EMBO Report2 (2015): 137-141.
- He W., et al. “An Aging World: 2015: International Population Reports. US Census Bureau, US Government Printing Office: Washington D.C”. (2015).
- Chia CW., et al. “Age-Related Changes in glucose metabolism, hyperglycemia, and cardiovascular risk”. Circulation Research. 123 (2018): 886-904.
- Barnes AS. “The epidemic of obesity and diabetes: trends and treatments”. Texas Heart Institute Journal 2 (2011): 142-144.
- Cho NH., et al. “IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 138 (2018): 271-281.
- Tabish SA. “Is diabetes becoming the biggest epidemic of the twenty-first century?” International Journal of Health Sciences (Qassim). 1.2 (2007): V-VIII.
- Pandey SK., et al. “World diabetes day 2018: Battling the emerging epidemic of diabetic retinopathy”. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology11 (2018): 1652-1653.
- American Diabetes Association. “Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2017”. Diabetes Care 41 (2018): 917-28.
- Ceriello A. “Postprandial hyperglycemia and diabetes complications”. Diabetes1 (2005): 1-7.
- Jamous RM., et al. “Antiobesity and antioxidant potentials of selected Palestinian medicinal plants”. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 13 (2018): 8426752.
- Mujawdiya PK., et al. “Screening of antioxidant and α-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of Indian medicinal plants”. Current Enzyme Inhibition2 (2020).
- Kazeem MI., et al. “Modes of inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by aqueous extract of Morinda lucida benth leaf”. Biomed Research International (2013): 6-13.
- Kumar S., et al. “α-glucosidase inhibitors from plants: A natural approach to treat diabetes”. Pharmacognosy Reviews 9 (2011): 19-29.
- Mohammad AZ., et al. “Searching for Α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in hexane extracts by some plants from Kurdistan province”. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research 3 (2015): 291-296.
- DiNicolantonio JJ., et al. “Acarbose: safe and effective for lowering postprandial hyperglycaemia and improving cardiovascular outcomes”. Open Heart 1 (2015): e000327.
- Zárate A., et al. “Hypercholesterolemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease: current controversial therapeutic management”. Archives of Medical Research 7 (2016): 491-495.
- Kachur S., et al. “Obesity and cardiovascular diseases”. Minerva Medica 3 (2017): 212-228.
- Gururaja GM., et al. “Cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity of bioactives from leaves of Mangifera indica L”. Pharmacognosy Research4 (2014): 355-362.
- Bhalodia NR., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula l.: An ethnomedicinal plant”. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research 2 (2011): 104-109.
- Srivastava J., et a “Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAms) as an alternative drug line to control infections”. 3 Biotech 4.5 (2014): 451-460.
- Casqueiro J., et al. “Infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: A review of pathogenesis”. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 1 (2012): S27-S36.
- Lin YT., et al. “Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess in diabetic patients: association of glycemic control with the clinical characteristics”. BMC Infectious Disease13 (2013): 56.
- Enache-Angoulvant A., et al. “Invasive SaccharomycesInfection: A comprehensive review”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 11 (2005): 1559-1568.
- Algazaq JN., et al. Saccharomyces cerevisiaelaryngitis and oral lesions in a patient with laryngeal carcinoma”. Case Reports in Infectious Diseases (2017): 4.
- Pillai U., et al. “Invasive Saccharomyces cerevisiaeinfection: A friend turning foe?” Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation 25 (2014): 1266-1269.
- Ravipati AS., et al. “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected Chinese medicinal plants and their relation with antioxidant content”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12 (2013): 173.
- Goel N., et al. “Estimation of total saponins and evaluate their effect on in vitro methanogenesis introduction and rumen fermentation pattern in wheat straw based diet”. Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research (2012) 120-126.
- Zbîrcea RI., et al. “Use of 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid reaction to study the chitosan hydrolysis”. New Frontiers in Chemistry 25 (2016): 145-153.
- Omran AP., et al. “Bial’s Test, A simple method for formaldehyde detection”. Biomedical Journal of Scientific and Technical Research 3 (2020).
- Bondoc KGV., et al. “Chemical fingerprinting and phylogenetic mapping of saponin congeners from three tropical holothurian sea cucumbers”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B 3 (2013): 182-193.
- Moradi-Afrapoli F., et al. “In vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of phenolic constituents from aerial parts of Polygonum hyrcanicum”. Daru 1 (2012): 37.
- Pietsch M., et al. “Alternate substrate inhibition of cholesterol esterase by thieno 2,3-d.1,3.oxazin-4-ones”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 27 (2002): 24006-24013.
- Silva S., et al. “Antibacterial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis, Zingiber officinale, Citrus aurantium bergamia, and Copaifera officinalisalone and in combination with calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis”. BioMed Research International 2019 (2019): 8129439.
- Bachirraho G., et al. “Antifungal properties of some essential oils against Saccharomyces cerevisiae”. Current Trends on Biotechnology and Microbiology 1 (2018).
- Bengoechea JA., et al. “Klebsiella pneumoniaeinfection biology: living to counteract host defences”. FEMS Microbiology Reviews2 (2019): 123-144.
- Paczosa MK., et al. “Klebsiella pneumoniae: going on the offense with a strong defense”. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 80.3 (2016): 629-661.
- Fadhel M., et al. “Saccharomyces cerevisiaefungemia in a critically ill patient with acute cholangitis and long term probiotic use”. Medical Mycology Case Reports 23 (2018): 23-25.
- Muñoz P., et al. “Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia: an emerging infectious disease”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 11 (2005): 1625-1634.
- Sharad S., et al. Indian herb-derived phytoconstituent-based antiviral, antimicrobial and antifungal formulation: An oral rinse candidate for oral hygiene and the potential prevention of covid-19 outbreaks”. Pathogens 9 (2021): 1130.
- Fu A., et al. “Glucose metabolism and pyruvate carboxylase enhance glutathione synthesis and restrict oxidative stress in pancreatic islets”. Cell Report8 (2021): 110037.
- Shou J., et al. “Mechanism of increased risk of insulin resistance in aging skeletal muscle”. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 12 (2020): 14.
- Uranga RM., et al. “The Complex interactions between obesity, metabolism and the brain”. Frontiers in Neuroscience 13 (2019): 513.
- Bansode B., et al. “Economic burden of diabetic patients in India: A review”. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome 4 (2019): 2469-2472.
- Shi L., et al. “Economic burden of diabetes-related hypoglycemia on patients, payors, and employers”. Journal of Diabetes Complications 6 (2021): 107916.