Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 5 Issue 8

Natural Anti-infective Agents: A Promising Front-line Strategy Against Microbial Resistance Mechanisms

Gloria G Guerrero M1*, Juan M Favela-Hernández2,3, and Aurora Martinez-Romero2

1University Autonome of Zacatecas, Unit of Biological Sciences, Lab of Immunobiology, Campus II, Zacatecas, Zac, Mexico

2Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, México

3Multidisciplinary Institute of Sciences, AVICENA Campus, Torreón, Coahuila, México

*Corresponding Author: Gloria G Guerrero M, University Autonome of Zacatecas, Unit of Biological Sciences, Lab of Immunobiology, Campus II, Zacatecas, Zac, Mexico.

Received: October 04, 2021; Published: July 29, 2022


The global emergence of drug-resistant strains is one of the major concerns and challenges in human infectious diseases due mainly to antibiotics misuse and dosage leading to inadequate control of microbial infections. Anti-infective agents represent the new generation of natural antibiotics (chalcones, phenolic acids, bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides). These compounds show diversity in sources, chemical structures, and mechanisms of action. These capabilities make them potential candidates to fight against microbial resistance. The literature on this topic is immense. This review aims to pinpoint general and basic knowledge of natural anti-infective agents (sources, targets, physicochemical properties), all of which constitute key elements that shape their antimicrobial action and make them a hope for more effective treatments.

Keywords: Anti-infective Agents; Bacteriostatic; Bactericidal; Triterpenes; Flavonoids; Gram Positive/Gran Negative Bacteria; Secondary Metabolites; Antimicrobial Peptides


  1. WHO G. “WHO methods an data sources for global burden of disease estimates 2000-2011”. Geneva. Department of Health Statistics and Information Systems (2013).
  2. Grienke U., et al. “Discovery of Bioactive Natural Products for the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Infections - An Integrated Approach”. Planta Medica 84 (2018): 684-695.
  3. Lima MC., et al. “A review of the current evidence of fruit phenolic compounds as potential antimicrobials against pathogenic bacteria”. Microbial Pathogen 130 (2019): 259-270.
  4. Sewlikar S and D'Souza DH. “Antimicrobial Effects of Quillaja Saponaria Extract Against Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and the Emerging Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Coli”. Journal of Food Science 82 (2017): 1171-1177.
  5. Nicol M., et al. “Anti-persister Activity of Squalamine Against Acinetobacter Baumannii”. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 53 (2019): 337-342.
  6. Thawabteh A., et al. “The Biological Activity of Natural Alkaloids against Herbivores, Cancerous Cells and Pathogens”. Toxins 11 (2019): 656-684.
  7. Valdivieso UM., et al. “Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Properties of Essential Oils. A systematic review”. Nutrients 11 (2019): 1-29.
  8. Zakaryan H., et al. “Flavonoids: promising natural compounds against viral infections”. Archives of Virology 162 (2017): 2539-2551.
  9. Wang S., et al. “Bacteriostatic Effect of Quercetin as an Antibiotic Alternative in vivo and its Antibacterial Mechanism in vitro”. Journal of Food Protection 81 (2018): 68-78.
  10. Adamczak A., et al. “Antibacterial Activity of Some Flavonoids and Organic Acids Widely Distributed in Plants”. Journal of Clinical Medicine 9 (2019): 1-17.
  11. Jamwal K., et al. “Plant growth regulator mediated consequences of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants”. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 9 (2018): 26-38.
  12. Burmaoglu S., et al. “Design of Potent Fluoro-Substituted Chalcones as Antimicrobial Agents”. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 2 (2017): 490-495.
  13. Mazlun MH., et al. “Phenolic Compounds as Promising Drug Candidates in Tuberculosis Therapy”. Molecules 24 (2019): 1-16.
  14. Smułek W., et al. “Saponaria Officinalis L. Extract: Surface Active Properties and Impact on Environmental Bacterial Strains”. Colloids Surface B Biointerfaces 150 (2017): 209-215.
  15. Sadgrove NJ., et al. “From Petri Dish to Patient: Bioavailability Estimation and Mechanism of Action for Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Natural Products”. Frontiers in Microbiology 31 (2019): 1-26.
  16. Kuroda T and Ogawa W. “Search for Novel Antibacterial Compounds and Targets”. Yakugaku Zasshi 137 (2017): 383-388.
  17. Swietnicki W., et al. “Identification of Small Molecule Compounds Active against Staphylococcus Aureus and Proteus Mirabilis”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 506 (2018): 1047-1051.
  18. Shao B., et al. “Effects of Rhamnolipids on Microorganism Characteristics and Applications in Composting: A Review”. Microbiological Research 200 (2017): 33-44.
  19. Coulthurst S. “The Type VI Secretion System: A Versatile Bacterial Weapon”. Microbiology 165 (2019): 503-515.
  20. Mahapatra DK., et al. “Chalcone scaffolds as anti infective agents: structural and molecular target perspectives”. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 101 (2015): 496-524.
  21. Pacholak A., et al. “Biodegradation of Clotrimazole and Modification of Cell Properties After Metabolic Stress and Upon Addition of Saponins”. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 161 (2018): 676-682.
  22. Khameneh B., et al. “Review on plant antimicrobials: a mechanistic viewpoint”. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 16 (2019): 118-146.
  23. Saha P., et al. “Drug Permeation Against Efflux by Two Transporters”. ACS Infectious Disease 6 (2020): 747-758.
  24. Echeverría J., et al. “Structure-Activity and Lipophilicity Relationships of Selected Antibacterial Natural Flavones and Flavanones of Chilean Flora”. Molecules 22 (2017): 1-15.
  25. O’Toole GA. “Classic spotlight: How the Gram stain Works”. Journal of Bacteriology 198 (2016): 3128.
  26. Farhadi F., et al. “Antibacterial activity of flavonoids and their structure-activity relationship: An update review”. Phytotherapy Research 33 (2019): 13-40.
  27. Park J-Y., et al. “Evaluation of polyphenols from Broussonetia papyrifera as coronavirus protease inhibitors”. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 32 (2017): 504-512.
  28. Catteau L., et al. “Natural and hemisynthetic pentacyclic triterpene as antimicrobials and resistance modifying agents against Staphylococcus aureus: A review”. Phytochemistry Research 17 (2018): 1120-1163.
  29. Shen I., et al. “High-throughput screening and identification of potent broad-spectrum inhibitors of coronaviruses”. Journal of Virology 93 (2019): e00023-19.
  30. Kumar R., et al. “Therapeutic potential of Aloe vera-A miracle gift of nature”. Phytomedicine 60 (2019): 1-11.
  31. Khalifa ShAM., et al. “Screening for natural and derived bio-active compounds in preclinical and clinical studies: One of the frontlines of fighting the coronaviruses pandemic”. Phytomedicine 85 (2021): 1-22.
  32. Boozari M and Hosseinzadeh H. “Natural products for COVID-19 prevention and treatment regarding to previous coronavirus infections and novel studies”. Phytotherapy Research 35 (2021): 864-876.
  33. Drozdzal S., et al. “An update on drugs with therapeutic potential for SARS-CoV2 (COVID19) treatment”. Drug Resistance Update 59 (2021): 100794-100822.
  34. Pendergrass HA and May AE. “Natural Product Type III Secretion System Inhibitors”. Antibiotics 8 (2019): 1-14.
  35. Palk S., et al. “Autophagy: New strategy for host-directed therapy against tuberculosis”. Virulence 10 (2019): 448-459.
  36. Paczkowski JE., et al. “Flavonoids Suppress Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Through Allosteric Inhibition of Quorum-sensing Receptors”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 292 (2017): 4064-4076.
  37. Chaparro-Aguirre E., et al. “Antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action of a novel peptide present in the ecdysis process of centipede Scolopendra subspinipes”. Scientific Report 9 (2019): 13631-13642.
  38. Abd El-Hack M E., et al. “Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of chitosan and its derivatives and their applications: A review”. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 164 (2020): 2726-2744.
  39. Jamil B., et al. “Mechanism of Action: How Nano-Antimicrobials Act?”. Current Drug Targets 18 (2017): 363-373.
  40. Reichert CL., et al. “Characteristics and Functional Properties”. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology 10 (2019): 43-73.
  41. Corina L Reichert., et al. “Characteristics and Functional Properties”. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology 10 (2019): 43-73.
  42. Fleck DJ., et al. “Saponins from Quillaja saponaria and Quillaja brasiliensis: Particular Chemical Characteristics and Biological Activities”. Molecules 24 (2019): 171-200.
  43. Kang HK., et al. “The Therapeutic Applications of Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs): A Patent Review”. Journal of Microbiology 55 (2017): 1-12.
  44. Rončević T., et al. “Antimicrobial Peptides as Anti-Infective Agents in Pre-Post-Antibiotic Era?”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20 (2019): 1-32.
  45. Bo J., et al. “Antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of multiple antimicrobial peptides isolated from rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus”. Fish Shellfish Immunology 93 (2019): 1007-1017.
  46. Neshani A., et al. “Epinecidin-1, a highly potent marine antimicrobial peptide with anticancer and immunomodulatory activities”. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 20 (2019): 33.
  47. Elliott AG., et al. “An amphipathic peptide with antibiotic activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria”. Nature Communication 11 (2020): 3184-3197.
  48. Koo HB and Seo J. “Antimicrobial peptides under clinical investigation”. Peptide Science e24122 (2019): 1-15.
  49. Jiao K., et al. “Isolation and purification of a novel antimicrobial peptide from Porphyra yezoensis”. Journal of Food Biochemistry 43 (2019): e12864.
  50. Joon-Hee L. “Perspectives towards antibiotic resistance: from molecules to population”. Journal of Microbiology 57 (2019): 181-184.
  51. Kumariya R., et al. “Bacteriocins: Classification, Synthesis, Mechanism of Action and Resistance Development in Food Spoilage Causing Bacteria”. Microbial Pathogen 128 (2019): 171-177.
  52. Christaki E., et al. “Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria: Mechanisms, Evolution, and Persistence”. Journal of Molecular Evolution 88 (2019): 26-40.
  53. Henrietta Venter. “Reversing resistance to counter antimicrobial resistance in the world health organization’s critical priority of most dangerous pathogens”. Bioscience Reports 39 (2019): 1-12.
  54. Hanif E and Hassan SA. “Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus”. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 32 (2019): 1219-1223.
  55. Miklasińska-Majdanik M., et al. “Phenolic Compounds Diminish Antibiotic Resistance of Staphylococcus Aureus Clinical Strains”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (2018): 2321-2338.
  56. Sousa V., et al. “Polyphenols as Resistance Modulators in Arcobacter Butzleri”. Folia Microbiology 64 (2019): 547-555.
  57. Pursey E., et al. “CRISPR Cas antimicrobials: challenges and future prospects”. PLoS Pathogen 14 (2018): e1006990.
  58. Sbaraglini ML Talevi. “A Hybrid Compounds as Anti-infective Agents”. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 179 (2017): 1080-1095.
  59. Ladram A and Nicolas P. “Antimicrobial Peptides from Frog Skin: Biodiversity and Therapeutic Promises”. Frontiers in Bioscience 21 (2016): 1341-1371.
  60. Khan MT., et al. “Marine Natural Products and Drug Resistance in Latent Tuberculosis”. Marine Drugs 17 (2019): 1-13.
  61. Hou XM., et al. “Marine natural products as potential anti-tubercular agents”. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 1 (2019): 273-292.


Citation: Gloria G Guerrero M., et al. “Natural Anti-infective Agents: A Promising Front-line Strategy Against Microbial Resistance Mechanisms". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.8 (2022): 134-148.


Copyright: © 2022 Gloria G Guerrero M., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US