Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 5 Issue 7

Herpes/SARS-CoV-2 Treatment with Micellized Nutraceuticals

Jerry T Thornthwaite* and Daniel Strasser

Cancer Research Institute of West Tennessee, USA

*Corresponding Author: Jerry T Thornthwaite, Cancer Research Institute of West Tennessee, USA.

Received: June 08, 2022; Published: June 20, 2022

Abstract

In natural immunity, infected cells express part of the viral protein on their cell surface. The host's natural killer cells (NKC) recognize and directly kill the infected cells. Therefore, an antiviral drug can block any virus' steps to reproduce itself. Using the NutraNanoSphere™ technology platform, a significant array of potent antivirals nutraceuticals have been incorporated into the TriAntiVP™ (antivirus and parasite) micellized formulation. These include Curcumin, Artemisinin, Bilberry, and Vitamin D3 as core components. These supplements have little of any side effects and are good candidates to be taken on a daily basis to prevent parasitic and viral diseases. While the use of these nutraceuticals has been hindered therapeutically because of their low aqueous solubility and rapid degradation in the stomach, the micellization process significantly increases the bioavailability.

These active supplements fight against viral disease, e.g., COVID-19 or HERPES, collectively by preventing the binding of the viral S protein to the ACE2 receptor on lung cells, thus preventing the infection process, inhibiting the protolytic processes that allow replicating viruses to leave the host cell, prevents NF-ĸB cytokine storm inflammatory results, inhibits viral protein processing, enables one to immediately be proactive when an initial diagnosis of a skin lesion, such as herpes, or viral illness. We think we have effective preventative formulations and treatments by combining a range of antiviral nutraceuticals to the NutraNanoSphere™ delivery system. The versatility of these treatments allows for oral medication, applying antivirals directly in the nasopharynx, and topically attacking the lesions on the skin.

Keywords: COVID-19; Immunity; NutraNanoSphere™

References

  1. Thornthwaite JT., et al. “The Natural Killer Cell: A Historical Perspective and the Use of Supplements to Enhance NKC Activity”. Journal of Immune Based Therapies, Vaccines, and Anti-microbials 1 (2012): 21-52.
  2. Thornthwaite JT., et al. “How to Kill A Virus: Strengthening the Immune System, Reducing Inflammation, Relieving Oxidative Stress, Early Detection in the Prevention and Treatment of SARS- CoV-2 (COVID-19)”. Acta Scientific Microbiology2 (2021): 6-18.
  3. Abdalla S., et al. “Population Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous and Oral Acyclovir and Oral Valacyclovir in Pediatric Population To Optimize Dosing Regimens”. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12 (2020): e01426-1420.
  4. Tagarro A., et al. “Miembros del Grupo de Trabajo de Infecciones Respiratorias de la SEIP que han participado en la revisión del manuscrito. Oseltamivir para el tratamiento de la gripe en niños y adolescentes Oseltamivir for the treatment of influenza in children and adolescents”. Anales de Pediatría (Engl Ed). 90.5 (2019): 317.e1-317.e8.
  5. Rachlis AR. “Zidovudine (Retrovir) update”. CMAJ 11 (1990): 1177-1185.
  6. Gupta R., et al. “Genital herpes”. Lancet9605 (2007): 2127-2137.
  7. Groves MJ. “Genital Herpes: A Review”. American Family Physician11 (2016): 928-934.
  8. Koshy E., et al. “Epidemiology, treatment and prevention of herpes zoster: A comprehensive review”. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology 3 (2018): 251-262.
  9. Brezáni V., et al. “Anti-Infectivity against Herpes Simplex Virus and Selected Microbes and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Compounds Isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill”. Viruses 10 (2018): 360.
  10. Hassan STS., et al. “Psoromic Acid, a Lichen-Derived Molecule, Inhibits the Replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2, and Inactivates HSV-1 DNA Polymerase: Shedding Light on Antiherpetic Properties”. Molecules 24 (2019): 2912.
  11. Ho DY., et al. “Herpesvirus Infections Potentiated by Biologics”. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 34 (2020): 311-339.
  12. Cohen JI. “Herpesvirus latency”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 130 (2020): 3361-3369.
  13. Zheng W., et al. “Toll-like receptor-mediated innate immunity against herpesviridae infection: A current perspective on viral infection signaling pathways”. Virology Journal 17 (2020): 192.
  14. Flores DJ., et al. “Inhibition of curcumin-treated Herpes Simplex virus 1 and 2 in vero cells”. Advances in Microbiology 6 (2016): 276-287.
  15. El-Mahdy MM., et al. “Performance of Curcumin in Nanosized Carriers Niosomes and Ethosomes as Potential Anti-Inflammatory Delivery System for Topical Application”. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Assiut 43 (2020): 105-122.
  16. Xu YQ., et al. “Niosome encapsulation of Curcumin: Characterization and cytotoxic effect on ovarian cancer cells”. Journal of Nanomaterial 2016 (2016): 1-9.
  17. Manoharan Y., et al. “Curcumin: A Wonder Drug as a Preventive Measure for COVID19 Management”. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 35 (2020): 373-375.
  18. Qin Y., et al. “Curcumin inhibits the replication of enterovirus 71 in vitro”. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B 4 (2014): 284-294.
  19. Ferreira VH., et al. “The anti-inflammatory activity of Curcumin protects the genital mucosal epithelial barrier from disruption and blocks replication of HIV-1 and HSV-2”. PLoS ONE 10 (2015): e0124903.
  20. Rattis BAC., et al. “Curcumin as a Potential Treatment for COVID-19”. Frontiers in Pharmacology 12 (2021): 675287.
  21. El-Halim SMA., et al. “Fabrication of Anti-HSV-1 Curcumin Stabilized Nanostructured Proniosomal Gel: Molecular Docking Studies on Thymidine Kinase Proteins”. Scientia Pharmaceutica 88 (2020): 9.
  22. Grama CN., et al. “Efficacy of biodegradable curcumin nanoparticles in delaying cataract in diabetic rat model”. PLoS ONE 8 (2013): e78217.
  23. Parikh A., et al. “Curcumin-loaded self-nanomicellizing solid dispersion system: Part II: In vivo safety and efficacy assessment against behavior deficit in Alzheimer disease”. Drug Delivery and Translational Research 8 (2018): 1406-1420.
  24. Thornthwaite JT., et al. “Anticancer Effects of the Curcumin, Artemisinin, Genistein, and Resveratrol, and Vitamin C: Free vs. Liposomal Forms”. Advances in Biological Chemistry 7 (2017): 27-41.
  25. Septembre-Malaterre A., et al. “Artemisia annua, a Traditional Plant Brought to Light”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences14 (2020): 4986.
  26. Efferth T. “Beyond malaria: The inhibition of viruses by artemisinin-type compounds”. Biotechnology Advances 6 (2018): 1730-1737.
  27. Cao R., et al. “Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Potential of Artemisinins In Vitro”. ACS Infectious Diseases9 (2020): 2524-2531.
  28. Rolta R., et al. “Phytocompounds of Rheum emodi, Thymus serpyllum and Artemisia annua inhibit COVID-19 binding to ACE2 receptor: In silico approach”. Research Square (2020).
  29. Alazmi M., et al. “Molecular basis for drug repurposing to study the interface of the S protein in SARS-CoV-2 and human ACE2 through docking, characterization, and molecular dynamics for natural drug candidates”. Journal of Molecular Modeling 26 (2020): 338.
  30. Wojtkowiak-Giera A., et al. “Influence of Artemisia Annua L. on Toll-like Receptor Expression in Brain of Mice Infected with Acanthamoeba Sp”. Experimental Parasitology 185 (2018): 17-22.
  31. Xu H., et al. “Anti-Malarial Agent Artesunate Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines via Inhibition of NF-ΚB and PI3 Kinase/Akt Signal Pathway in Human Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes”. Rheumatology 46 (2007): 920-926.
  32. Sehailia M and Chemat S. “Antimalarial-agent Artemisinin and derivatives portray more potent binding to Lys353 and Lys31-binding hotspots of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein than hydroxychloroquine: potential repurposing of artenimol for COVID-19”. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics (2020): 1-11.
  33. W C. “Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.)”. In: SCM C, ed. 2nd ed. In: Benzie 417 IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects.: Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press (2011).
  34. Chen J., et al. “Expression profiling of genes targeted by bilberry 421 (Vaccinium myrtillus) in macrophages through DNA microarray”. Nutrition Cancer 60 (2008): 43-50.
  35. Triebel S., et al. “Modulation of inflammatory gene expression by a 424 bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract and single anthocyanins considering their 425 limited stability under cell culture conditions”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60 (2012): 8902-8910.
  36. Roth S., et al. “Bilberry-derived anthocyanins prevent IFN-γ-induced pro-inflammatory signalling and cytokine secretion in human THP-1 monocytic cells”. Digestion 3 (2014): 179-189.
  37. Sekizawa H., et al. “Relationship between polyphenol content and anti-influenza viral effects of berries”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 9 (2013): 2239-2241.
  38. Hohtola A. “Bioactive compounds from northern plants”. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 698 (2010): 99-109.
  39. Telcian AG., et al. “Vitamin D increases the antiviral activity of bronchial epithelial cells in vitro”. Antiviral Research 137 (2017): 93-101.
  40. Grant WB., et al. “Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths”. Nutrients4 (2020): 988.
  41. Goddek S. “Vitamin D3 and K2 and their potential contribution to reducing the COVID-19 mortality rate”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020): S1201-9712 (20)30624-X.
  42. Brenner H., et al. “Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency and Mortality from Respiratory Diseases in a Cohort of Older Adults: Potential for Limiting the Death Toll during and beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic?”. Nutrients8 (2020): E2488.
  43. Hribar CA., et al. “Potential Role of Vitamin D in the Elderly to Resist COVID-19 and Slow Progression of Parkinson's Disease”. Brain Science5 (2020): 284.
  44. Goddek S. “Vitamin D3 and K2 and their potential contribution to reducing the COVID-19 mortality rate”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020): S1201-9712 (20)30624-X.
  45. Brenner H., et al. “Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency and Mortality from Respiratory Diseases in a Cohort of Older Adults: Potential for Limiting the Death Toll during and beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic?”. Nutrients8 (2020): E2488.
  46. Herr C., et al. “The role of cathelicidin and defensins in pulmonary inflammatory diseases”. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 7 (2007): 1449-1461.
  47. Agier J., et al. “Cathelicidin impact on inflammatory cells”. Central European Journal of Immunology 40 (2015): 225-235.
  48. Martinez-Moreno J., et al. “Effect of high doses of vitamin D supplementation on dengue virus replication, Toll-like receptor expression, and cytokine profiles on dendritic cells”. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 464 (2020): 169-180.
  49. Martinez-Moreno J., et al. “Effect of high doses of vitamin D supplementation on dengue virus replication, Toll-like receptor expression, and cytokine profiles on dendritic cells”. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 464 (2020): 169-180.
  50. Huang C., et al. “Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China”. Lancet (2020).
  51. Sharifi A., et al. “Effect of single-dose injection of vitamin D on immune cytokines in ulcerative colitis patients: A randomized placebo-controlled trial”. APIS 127 (2019): 681-687.
  52. Cantorna MT. “Mechanisms underlying the effect of vitamin D on the immune system”. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 69 (2010): 286-289.
  53. Lemire JM., et al. “1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses human T helper/inducer lymphocyte activity in vitro”. Journal of Immunology 134 (1985): 3032-3035.
  54. Cantorna MT., et al. “Vitamin D, and 1,25 (OH)2D regulation of T cells”. Nutrients 7 (2015): 3011-3021.
  55. Jeffery LE., et al. “1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and IL-2 combine to inhibit T cell production of inflammatory cytokines and promote the development of regulatory T cells expressing CTLA-4 and FoxP3”. Journal of Immunology 183 (2009): 5458-5467.
  56. Cantorna MT., et al. “Vitamin D, and 1,25 (OH)2D regulation of T cells”. Nutrients 7 (2015): 3011-3021.
  57. Al-Jaderi Z and Maghazachi AA. “Effects of vitamin D3, calcipotriol, and FTY720 on the expression of surface molecules and cytolytic activities of human natural killer cells and dendritic cells”. Toxins (Basel). 5.11 (2013): 1932-1947.
  58. Höck AD. “Review: Vitamin D3 deficiency results in dysfunctions of immunity with severe fatigue and depression in various diseases”. In Vivo1 (2014): 133-145.

Citation

Citation: Jerry T Thornthwaite and Daniel Strasser. “Herpes/SARS-CoV-2 Treatment with Micellized Nutraceuticals". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.7 (2022): 55-63.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Jerry T Thornthwaite and Daniel Strasser. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In






News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is November 30, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US