Airborne Allergenic Pollen Grains in Alexandria City, Egypt
Wafaa K Taia1* and Eman M Bassiouni2
1Professor, Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
2Professor, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany and Microbiology, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
*Corresponding Author: Wafaa K Taia, Professor, Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
May 04, 2022; Published: May 30, 2022
This investigation concerning study of the trapped pollen grains in the aerosol of Alexandria city, Egypt throughout a full year from May 2019 to April 2020. To carry this work Hirst type volumetric trap was fixed in the roof of about 40 m above the ground building in El-Shatby district. A Tape removed after each week and segmented into 24 hours pieces and examined. The pollen counts are indicated the daily mean count per cubic meter of air. The data obtained indicated low annual pollen index with the dominant species belonging to the Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae complex followed by Casuarina, Arecaceae, Pinus and Urtica. The maximum pollen incident was in both summer and spring while the lowest was during winter. There was no correlation between both the pollen incident and the different climatic factors. The study concluded that pollinosis in Alexandria city is not due to the pollen grain only, but it is due to combinations of factors beside the quantity of pollen in the air. The results have been discussed according to the works done in this concern.
Keywords Aeropalynology; Allergy; Pollen Grains; Pollution
- Leuschner RH., et al. “30 Years of study of grass pollen in Basel, Switzerland”. Aerobiologia 16 (2000): 381-391.
- García-Mozo HC., et al. “Quercus pollen season dynamics in the Iberian Peninsula: response to meteorological parameters and possible consequences of climate change”. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM 13 (2006): 209-224.
- On the State of Knowledge on the Health Impact Associated with Exposure of The General Population to Pollen Found in Ambient Air, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety, Maisons-Alfort, France (2014).
- Womiloju TO., et al. “Methods to determine the biological composition of particulate matter collected from outdoor air”. Atmospheric Environment31 (2003): 4335-4344.
- Chiesura A. “The role of urban parks for the sustainable city”. Landscape and Urban Planning 68 (2004): 129-138.
- Sadeghian MM and Vardanyan Z. “The benefits of Urban Parks, a review of urban research”. Journal of Novel Applied Sciences 2 (2013): 231-237.
- Andreucci MB. “Progettare Green Infrastructure Tecnologie, Valori e Strumenti per la Resilienza Urbana”. Wolters Kluwer: Milano, Italy (2017).
- D’Amato G. “Pollen allergy in the Mediterranean area”. Revue Française d'Allergologie et d'Immunologie Clinique 38 (1998): 5160-5162.
- Maeda Y., et al. “Clinical study of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen-induced asthma”. Allergology International 57 (2008): 413-417.
- Asam C., et al. “Tree pollen allergens—An update from a molecular perspective”. Allergy 70 (2015): 1201-1211.
- Taia WK. “Pollen Allergens of some Road Trees, Shrubs and Herbs in Alexandria, Egypt”. Biomedical Science 5 (2020): 187-190.
- Taia WK and Zayed AAH. “Road tree pollen grain contents and effect on the immune system”. Quantrum Journal of Medical and Health Sciences 4 (2021): 34-50.
- Dhyani A., et al. “Analysis of IgE binding proteins of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) pollen and cross-reactivity with predominant tree pollens”. Immunobiology 9 (2006): 733-740.
- Mandal J., et al. “Clinical and immunobiochemical characterization of airborne Peltophorum pterocarpum (yellow gulmohar tree) pollen: a dominant avenue tree of India”. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology5 (2011): 412-420.
- Mansouritorghabeh H., et al. “The Most Common Allergenic Tree Pollen Grains in the Middle East: A Narrative Review”. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 2 (2019): 87-98.
- Asturias JA., et al. “Pho d 2, a major allergen from date palm pollen, is a profilin: cloning sequencing, and immunoglobulin E cross‐reactivity with other profilins”. Clinical and Experimental Allergy3 (2005): 374-381.
- “The acetolysis method. A revised description”. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 39 (1960): 561- 564.
- O’Rourke MK. “Medical palynology”. In: Jansonius, J, McGregor, DC (ed.), Palynology: principles and applications. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation Chapter 23F (1996): 945-955.
- Hirst J M. “An automatic volumetric spore trap”. Annals of Applied Biology 39 (1952): 257-265.
- Galan C., et al. “Spanish Aerobiological Network (REA): Management and Quality Manual”. Córdoba:Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Córdoba, Spain (2007.
- Spieksma FThM. “Regional European pollen calendars”. In: G. D’Amato G, F. Th. M. Spieksma FThM, Bonini S (Eds.), Allergenic pollen and pollinosis in Europe. Oxford: Blackwell Sci. Publ. (1991): 49-65.
- Punt W., et al. “Glossary of pollen and spore terminology”. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 143 (2007): 1-81.
- Scheifinger H., et al. “Monitoring, modelling and forecasting of the pollen season”. In: Sofiev M, Bergman C-K (Eds.) Allergenic Pollen: A Review of the Production, Release, Distribution and Health Impacts. Netherland: Springer-Verlag (2013): 71-126.
- Skjøth CA., et al. “Pollen Sources”. In: Sofiev M, Bergman C-K (Eds.), Allergenic Pollen: A Review of the Production, Release, Distribution and Health Impacts. Netherlands: Springer-Verlag (2013): 9-28.
- D’Amato G., et al. “Pollen-related allergy in Europe”. Allergy 53 (1998): 567-578.
- Saad SI. “Studies in atmospheric pollen grains and fungus spores at Alexandria. I. A daily census of pollen”. Egyptian Journal of Botany 1 (1958a): 53-61.
- Saad SI. “Studies in atmospheric pollen grains and fungus spores at Alexandria. II. Pollen and spores deposition in relation to weather conditions and diurnal variation in the incidence of pollen”. Egyptian Journal of Botany 1 (1958b): 63-79.
- El-Ghazaly G and Ahmed M. “Study of aerobiology of Alexandria, Egypt”. Qatar University Science Journal 11 (1991): 161-182.
- Galán C., et al. “Bioclimatic factors affecting daily Cupressaceae flowering in southwest Spain”. International Journal of Biometeorology 41 (1998): 95-100.
- Burton PK and Katelaris CH. “Characteristics of the Casuarina pollen season in the Sydney District, NSW”. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology1 (2007): S102.
- Serhane H., et al. “Prevalence of skin sensitization to pollen of date palm in Marrakesh, Morocco”. Journal of Allergy (Cairo) 3 (2017).
- Simsek F., et al. “Juniper-Pollen Mono sensitivity; Correlation between Airborne Pollen Concentrations and Clinical Symptoms In Denizli, Turkey”. European Journal of Rhinology and Allergy3 (2018): 63-66.
- Sabo NC., et al. “Air Pollution by Pollen Grains of Anemophilous Species: Influence of Chemical and Meteorological Parameters”. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 226 (2015): 292-304.