Increasing Resistance to Most of the Commonly Used Antibiotics in Eastern India
Anindya Das1* and Diganta Dey2
1Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, KPC Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal University of Health Science, Kolkata, India
2Department of Microbiology, Ashok Laboratory Clinical Testing Centre Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata, India
*Corresponding Author: Anindya Das, Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, KPC Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal University of Health Science, Kolkata, India.
April 25, 2022; Published: May 30, 2022
Infectious diseases continue to be a global health problem. In view of this, present work was initiated with an epidemiological assessment of antibiotic resistance pattern in Eastern India. This study was done in two phases; first one in 2009 - 10, and after an interval of about eight years, second one in 2018 - 19. The statistics showed a marked increase of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (~ 32% in community acquired urinary tract infections or CA UTI, and ~41% in hospital acquired or HA UTI in our second phase of study (2018 - 19) in comparison to the former study (~ 18%; during 2009 - 10). By and large, these ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae were found to exhibit greater resistance against several non-β-lactam antibiotics, as compared to ESBL non-producer counterparts. The ‘phase 2’ study also showed an alarming rise in carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) cases, with a frequency of ~ 10% in CA and ~ 20% in HA pathogens. Furthermore, an alarming rise in flouroquinolone resistance was noted among the Gram negative, as well as the Gram positive bacteria. However, the number of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was found to be comparatively less (~25% in CA UTI and ~37% in HA UTI) during the ‘phase 2’ than in the ‘phase1’ study (~52%). Again, MRSA isolates exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher rates of resistance against β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations and fluoroquinolones, as compared to the methicillin sensitive (MSSA) isolates. Overall, nosocomial organisms were more resistant against the tested antimicrobials than their community-acquired counterparts. The study demonstrated increasing resistance to most of the commonly used antibiotics, which mandates stringent antibiotic stewardship.
Keywords: Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria (MDR); Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase Producing Bacteria (ESBL); Nosocomial Infection; Community Acquired Pneumonia; Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA)
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