Investigation of the Effect of Protein Nutritional Status, Previous Malaria Exposure, and Comorbidity on Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Nigerian Children Under the Age of 5 Years
Olomu Segun Afolabi1*, Ubom Gregory Abraham1, Gazuwa Yusuf Samuel1, Johnson Titilayo1, Garba Ibrahim Hassan2 and Okolo Selina Nnuaku3
1Department of Biochemistry, University of Jos, Plateau, Nigeria
2Department of Biochemistry, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
3Paediatrics Department, Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Olomu Segun Afolabi, Department of Biochemistry, University of Jos, Plateau, Nigeria.
April 07, 2022; Published: May 24, 2022
Background: Malaria threatened almost half of the world’s population. A quarter of global malaria cases and deaths occur in Nigeria, mostly in children under the age of 5 years.
Objective: This study was aimed at determination of effects of protein nutritional status, prior malaria exposure, associated morbidity, and chloroquine treatment on biochemical and haematological parameters in children under 5 years with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Method: The nutritional status of the recruited children was assessed using the Advanced Paediatric Life support (APLS) formula, while malaria diagnosis, determination of bacterial and viral infection, and assessment of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were carried out using standard microscopy techniques. The complete blood count was carried out using Beckman Coulter Analyzer.
Results: At mean age of 18.54 ± 1.59 months, the 93 children recruited for this study were not malnourished. The expected weight-for-age was 83.53% and 82.92% for the two groups. The expected height-for-age was 85.62% and 91.62% for the two groups. 44.08% of these children have previous history of malaria and 23.66% of the children were never infected with malaria. The malaria history of 32.26% of the children could not be ascertained. 54.35% of the 46 malaria subjects had bacterial infection, 6.52% had viral infection, and 39.13% presented only malarial parasite. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in all the parameters when compared based on malaria history and comorbidity.
Conclusion: The studied children were not malnourished. P. falciparum infection comorbidity is prevalent. Previous malaria exposure and comorbidities did not influence any of the parameters determined.
Keywords: Malaria; Chloroquine; Malnutrition; Comorbidity; Parasitaemia; Children
- Greenberg AE., et al. “Hospital-based surveillance of malaria-related paediatric morbidity and mortality in Kinshasa, Zaire”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2 (1989): 189-196.
- Kamau A., et al. “Malaria infection, disease and mortality among children and adults on the coast of Kenya”. Malaria Journal 19 (2020): 210.
- “The “World malaria report 2019. At a glance”. World Malaria Report (2019).
- “20 years of global progress and challenges”. World Malaria Report 2020 (2020).
- “World malaria report 2021” (2021).
- Olomu S., et al. “Determination of Effect of Home-Based Oral Chloroquine Treatment on Haematological Indices of P. falciparum Malaria in Children under 5 Years in Jos Metropolis”. Advances in Infectious Diseases 8 (2018): 70-81.
- Noland GS., et al. “Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria”. BMC Infectious Disease 14 (2014): 168.
- Afolabi OS., et al. “Investigation of the effect of malaria and home-based oral chloroquine treatment on biochemical indices of P. falciparum malaria infection in children under 5 years in jos metropolis”. Infectious Diseases Research 1 (2022): 6.
- Jallow M., et al. “Clinical features of severe malaria associated with death: a 13-year observational study in the Gambia”. PloS One9 (2012): e45645.
- Etiaba E., et al. “What co-morbidities do people with malaria have and what are their patterns of health seeking in Nigeria?” Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 1 (2015): 22-26.
- Nsirimobu Ichendu Paul., et al. “Severe Falciparum Malaria: Prevalence, Comorbidities and Outcome in children in Port Harcourt, Nigeria". SSRG International Journal of Medical Science10 (2019): 5-13.
- Kinyoki DK., et al. “Co-morbidity of malnutrition with falciparum malaria parasitaemia among children under the aged 6–59 months in Somalia: a geostatistical analysis”. Infectious Diseases of Poverty 7 (2018): 72.
- Nhabomba AJ., et al. “Impact of age of first exposure to Plasmodium falciparum on antibody responses to malaria in children: a randomized, controlled trial in Mozambique”. Malaria Journal (2014).
- Singer LM., et al. “The effects of varying exposure to malaria transmission on development of antimalarial antibody responses in preschool children. XVI. Asembo Bay Cohort Project”. Journal of Infectious Diseases 11 (2003): 1756-1764.
- Barua P., et al. “The impact of early life exposure to Plasmodium falciparum on the development of naturally acquired immunity to malaria in young Malawian children”. Malaria Journal 18 (2019): 11.
- Balikagala B., et al. “Recovery and Stable Persistence of Chloroquine Sensitivity in Plasmodium falciparum Parasites after Its Discontinued Use in Northern Uganda”. Malaria Journal (2020).
- Ukwuom B. “Fed Govt. Bans Chloroquine for Malaria Treatment”. The Guardian (2005).
- Okonkwo PO., et al. “Compliance to Correct Dose of Chloroquine in Uncomplicated Malaria Correlates with Improvement in the Condition of Rural Nigerian Children”. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 95 (2001): 320-324.
- Krejcie RV and Morgan DW. “Determining Sample Size for Research Activities”. Educational and Psychological Measurement 30 (1970): 607-661.
- Luscombe M D., et al. “Weight estimation in paediatrics: a comparison of the APLS formula and the formula 'Weight=3 (age)+7'. Emergency Medical Journal 28 (7): 590-593.
- Ali K., et al. “Is the APLS formula used to calculate weight-for-age applicable to a Trinidadian population?”. BMC Emergency Medicine 12 (2012): 9.
- Haq I., et al. “Validity of Weech's formulae in detecting undernutrition in children”. Nepal Medical College Journal 4 (2010): 229-233.
- Dacie SJV and Lewis SM. “Reference ranges and normal values”. In: Practical Hematology. 8th UK: Churchill Livingstone (1994).
- Student health center manuals. Complete Blood Count (CBC) (2013).
- “World Malaria Report 2011 Fact Sheet” (2011).
- Jane Achan., et al. “Current malaria infection, previous malaria exposure, and clinical profiles and outcomes of COVID-19 in a setting of high malaria transmission: an exploratory cohort study in Uganda”. Lancet Microbe 3 (2022): e62-71.