Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 5 Issue 5

Etiology, Clinical Spectrum, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Public Health Significance and Control of Leishmaniasis: A Comprehensive Review

Mahendra Pal1*, Iyasu Ejeta2, Adugna Girma3, Kushagra Dave4 and Pratibha Dave5

1Narayan Consultancy on Veterinary Public Health and Microbiology, Gujarat, India

2Ambo University Abebech Gobena Agricultural Research Centre, Ambo, Ethiopia

3Yemalog Walal Woreda Livestock and Fishery Development and Resource Office, Kellem Wolega Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

4Smt.NHL Municipal Medical College, VS Hospital Campus, Ahmadabad, India

5Welfare Hospital and Research Centre, Bharuch, India

*Corresponding Author: Mahendra Pal, Professor, Founder Director of Narayan Consultancy on Veterinary Public Health and Microbiology, Gujarat, India.

Received: April 11, 2022; Published: April 29, 2022

Abstract

Leishmaniasis is the most neglected an intracellular protozoan disease caused by genus Leishmania and it has a geographic distribution in 98 countries in the world. Currently, over 350 million people are at risk of the infection; and about 60,000 deaths are estimated to occur from both cutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis each year in the world. Infected female sand-fly genus Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis in the old and new worlds, respectively. The disease is occurring in a complicated variation in domestic and wild mammal reservoir hosts and sand fly as biological vector. The clinical manifestation of disease occurs in three main forms viz: cutaneous leishmaniasis, muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis, and visceral leishmaniasis. Laboratory techniques that include parasitological examination, immunological technique and molecular tools are imperative to establish an unequivocal diagnosis of leishmaniasis. A number of chemotherapeutic agents have been tried, however, treatment still remains challenging. Also the complex genetic and the population diversity of both the parasites and vectors make the control of this disease very difficult. Recently, leishmaniasis has been emerged or re-emerged in many geographical areas of the world. Thus globally coordinated more studies and assessment of the disease toward complexity chains in domestic and wild mammal reservoir hosts and the vector where leishmaniasis is endemic is recommended.

Keywords: Epidemiology; Leishmaniasis; Public Health; Reservoir Hosts; Sand-fly; Zoonotic
Importance

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Citation

Citation: Mahendra Pal., et al. “Etiology, Clinical Spectrum, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Public Health Significance and Control of Leishmaniasis: A Comprehensive Review". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.5 (2022): 110-121.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Mahendra Pal., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




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