Blandine Nkenfou Kampa1, Michel Kengne1, Ervé-Martial Kuemkon1, Carine Nguefeu Nkenfou-Tchinda2, Hortense Gonsu Kamga3, Bienvenu Bongue4 and Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou5,6*
1Catholic University of Central Africa, School of Health Sciences, Yaounde, Cameroon 2University of Yaounde I, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Cameroon 3Yaounde University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon 4Université de Saint-Etienne, Centre Technique d’Appui et de Formation des Centres d’examens de santé 5Chantal Biya International Reference Centre, Yaounde, Cameroon 6University of Yaounde I, Higher Teachers’ Training College, Yaounde, Cameroon
1Catholic University of Central Africa, School of Health Sciences, Yaounde, Cameroon
2University of Yaounde I, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, Cameroon
3Yaounde University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon
4Université de Saint-Etienne, Centre Technique d’Appui et de Formation des Centres d’examens de santé
5Chantal Biya International Reference Centre, Yaounde, Cameroon
6University of Yaounde I, Higher Teachers’ Training College, Yaounde, Cameroon
*Corresponding Author: Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou, Chantal Biya International Reference Centre, Yaounde, Cameroon.
Received: March 10, 2022; Published: April 12, 2022
Background: WHO has recommended a systematical administration of cotrimoxazole to children born to HIV-positive mothers to limit or reduce the occurrence of opportunistic infections. This systematic use of cotrimoxazole is associated with the evident risk of increased antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cotrimoxazole resistance and the resistance profile of strains isolated from urine samples of children born to HIV-positive mothers compared to HIV non-exposed, cotrimoxazole naïve children.
Methods: Children presenting with urinary tract infection were enrolled and grouped as cotrimoxazole treated or naïve. Bacteria isolates from urine samples of these children and were identified using standard microbiology techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disc diffusion technique. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.
Results: A total of 137 children under 15 years of age were enrolled. Of these, 98 were not HIV-exposed and cotrimoxazole naïve (group 1) and the remaining 39 HIV-infected were on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (group 2). The prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) was 31.5%; 29.5% in group 1 compared to 70.5% in group 2. Cotrimoxazole resistance was recorded in 77% of bacterial strains isolated from group 1 and 84% in group 2 with no statistical difference. In both groups, the most common bacteria isolated were Escherichia. coli (E; coli) and Klebsiella. Pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). These strains were resistant to more than 70% of the antibiotics tested, nevertheless they showed a good sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, imipenem and ceftriazone.
Conclusion: This study shows that despite the use of cotrimoxazole as prophylactic, UTI still occurred in HIV infected children, with a global prevalence of almost four-fifth resistance to cotrimoxazole and almost three-quater multi-resistance to other antibiotics. This implies a requirement of antibiogram in case of UTI before prescription.
Keywords: HIV-exposed Children; Cotrimoxazole; Lower Urinary Tract Infection; Bacterial Resistance
Citation: Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou., et al. “Cotrimoxazole Resistance Profile of Bacterial Strains Isolated from Urine Samples in Children Born to HIV Positive Mothers Compared to HIV Non-exposed Children". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.5 (2022): 73-79.
Copyright: © 2022 Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.