Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 4

Examining the Efficacy of Clomiphene Citrate as a Treatment for Male Infertility

Rohan Rai*

Junior at Clements High School in Sugar Land, Texas, United States

*Corresponding Author: Rohan Rai, Junior at Clements High School in Sugar Land, Texas, United States.

Received: February 07, 2022; Published: March 28, 2022

Abstract

The infertility rates in adult males have been rising at an alarming rate in recent years. Studies have shown that sperm counts have declined more than 59% in the past 50 years among men throughout North America, Europe, and Australia. The recent emergence of COVID-19 has further increased male fertility concerns, with studies evidencing potential damage the virus could inflict upon the testes. While it is not clear yet whether these developments have any major implications on the future of the human race as a whole, couples around the world struggle to come to terms with the fact that a biological child is not an option for them. The majority of these cases are a result of functional hypogonadism, a condition where infertility is caused by a secondary factor such as hormone abnormalities, obesity, and chronic illnesses, rather than an impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Clomiphene citrate is a treatment for functional hypogonadism that has yet to be approved by the FDA for men, but has shown promising results in clinical trials and is used off-label. This project analyzes the recently emerging drug of as a gonadotropin-inducer in men by corroborating existing research to find causations and interviewing a user of the drug for his experiences. An educated claim (with limitations considered) is then made to identify whether the treatment is safe and effective and an ideal patient target and dosage is stated.

Keywords:COVID-19; Infertility; FDA

References

  1. (n.d.). “Reduction of increased sperm DNA fragmentation index using low-dose clomiphene citrate treatment among infertile males”. 96.3 (2011).
  2. Benshushan A., et al. “Ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate complicated by deep vein thrombosis. European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology”. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2 (1995): 261-262.
  3. “Luteinizing hormone (LH) test: Uses, ranges, and results”. Medical News Today (2019).
  4. “Does testosterone therapy make you sterile? The truth about preventable male infertility”. BodyLogicMD (2019).
  5. “Pulmonary embolism associated WITH Clomiphene citrate in a young woman”. Turkish Thoracic Journal 20.1 (2019).
  6. Corona G., et al. “Treatment of Functional Hypogonadism besides Pharmacological Substitution.” The World Journal of Men's Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine3 (2020): 256-270.
  7. FDA Clomid (Clomiphene Citrate) Tablets Label. (n.d.).
  8. Grossmann M and Matsumoto A M. “Perspective on middle-aged and older men with functional hypogonadism: Focus on holistic management”. OUP Academic3 (2017): 1067-1075.
  9. Herzog B J., et al. “Clomiphene citrate for MALE Hypogonadism and INFERTILITY: An updated review”. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers (2020).
  10. Krzastek SC., et al. “Long-Term safety and efficacy of Clomiphene Citrate for the treatment Of hypogonadism”. The Journal of Urology5 (2019): 1029-1035.
  11. , et al. “The effect of clomiphene citrate on sex hormone binding globulin in normospermic and oligozoospermic men”. International Journal of Andrology 4.6 (1981): 639-645.
  12. , et al. “Treatment of men with central hypogonadism: Alternatives for testosterone replacement therapy”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22.1 (2020): 21.
  13. Mazzola CR., et al. “ Predicting biochemical response to clomiphene citrate in men with hypogonadism”. The Journal of Sexual Medicine9 (2014): 2302-2307.
  14. Miller Jamel. “Covid-19 Reduces Fertility in Men, Study Suggests”. Healio (2021).
  15. , et al. “Clomiphene for the treatment of MALE Infertility: A case report of mood change and a literature overview”. Current Drug Safety 12.3 (2017): 208-215.
  16. “How clomid works in men. Male Health - A blog about male fertility, potency and health by Craig Niederberger MD FACS” (2017).
  17. Paulson DF., et al. “Clomiphene citrate: Pharmacologic treatment of hypofertile male”. Urology 4 (1977): 419-421.
  18. Rambhatla A., et al. “The role of estrogen modulators in male hypogonadism and infertility”. Reviews in Urology2 (2016): 66-72.
  19. Ruvolo G., et al. “Lower sperm dna fragmentation after r-fsh administration in functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism”. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics4 (2013): 497-503.
  20. “Sex hormone binding globulin (shbg)”. Lab Tests Online (2021).
  21. Sissons, Claire. “Clomid for Men: Does It Increase Male Fertility?” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International (2019).
  22. Tina Kold Jensen PD. “Association of fish oil Supplement use with TESTICULAR function in young men”. JAMA Network Open1 (2019): e1919462.
  23. , et al. “Testosterone administration inhibits gonadotropin secretion by an effect directly on the human pituitary”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 68.2 (2019): 397-401.

Citation

Citation: Rohan Rai. “Examining the Efficacy of Clomiphene Citrate as a Treatment for Male Infertility". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.4 (2022): 151-155.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Rohan Rai. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In






News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US