Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 5 Issue 4

Human Monkeypox: An Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Viral Disease

Mahendra Pal1*, Rajkumar Singh2, Kirubel Paulos Gutama3, CV Savalia4 and Rajeshwari Thakur5

1Narayan Consultancy on Veterinary Public Health and Microbiology, Anand, India

2Ex-Director and Vice Chancellor of Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India

3Adaba District Livestock and Fishery Development and Resource, Ethiopia

4Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Science, Navsari, India

5U-18/75, FF, Pink Town House, DLF City, Gurgaon, Haryana, India

*Corresponding Author: Mahendra Pal, Professor, Founder Director of Narayan Consultancy on Veterinary Public Health and Microbiology, Anand, India.

Received: February 18, 2022; Published: March 28, 2022


The monkeypox is an emerging and re-emerging zoonosis that causes sporadic human infections in Central and West Africa's forested areas. Monkeypox virus, a member of the Orthopoxvirus family, is the etiological agent of disease. Monkeypox virus was discovered in the laboratory monkeys in 1958 at the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen, and the first human case of monkeypox virus was recorded in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1970. African rodents serve as the reservoir of the monkeypox virus. The respiratory, percutaneous, and permucosal exposures to infected monkeys, zoo animals, prairie dogs, and humans are the most common exposure routes of infection for human beings. The incubation period of the disease is 6 to 13 days, although it can take anywhere from 5 to 21 days. Most patients have a typical prodromal illness with fever, malaise, and lymphadenopathy for 2 days before the rash appears. The rashes mainly occur on the face, palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Maximum cases are observed in the persons who had direct contact with animals. If the characteristic skin lesions are present, and there is a history of exposure, monkeypox can be predicted. Laboratory culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy are the tools available for confirming the diagnosis. The prognosis of the disease in immunocompromised patients is poor. While working with nonhuman primates or other animals, care should be taken to treat and cover breaks in the skin as a routine preventive strategy. During interaction with monkeypox-affected animals, infection control techniques, such as proper hygiene, frequent hand washing, disinfection of surfaces and equipment, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) are critical.

Keywords: Control; Emerging; Monkey Pox; Monkeypox Virus; Prevention


  1. Pal M. “Zoonoses”. 2nd Edition Satyam Publishers, Jaipur, India. (2007).
  2. Pal M. “Public health concern due to emerging and re-emerging zoonoses”. International Journal of Livestock Research 3 (2013): 56-62.
  3. Pal M., et al. “Ebola haemorrahgic fever: An emerging highly contagious and fatal viral zoonosis”. Ethiopian International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research 2 (2014): 1-2.
  4. Pal M., et al. “Epidemiology, diagnosis and control of monkeypox disease: A comprehensive review”. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology 5 (2017): 94-99.
  5. Pal M. “Contagious ecthyma: An infectious emerging viral anthropozoonotic disease”. Acta Scientific Microbiology 1 (2018): 1.
  6. Pal M. “Severe acute respiratory syndrome: A newly recognized viral zoonosis of public health concern”. Acta Scientific Microbiology 1 (2018): 1.
  7. Renquist DM and Whitney RA. “Zoonoses Acquired From Pet Primates”. University of Wisconsin System Board of Regents, September 11, (2008).
  8. “Monkeypox Fact Sheet”. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. (2019).
  9. Di Giulio DB and Eckburg PB. “Human monkeypox: an emerging zoonosis”. Lancet Infectious Disease 4 (2004): 15-24.
  10. Venkatesan G., et al. “Viral zoonoses: A comprehensive review”. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 5 (2010): 77-92.
  11. “Monkeypox”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. (2021).
  12. Levine RS., et al. “Ecological niche and geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa”. PLoS ONE 2 (2007): e176.
  13. McCollum AM and Damon I K. “Human monkeypox”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 58 (2014): 260-3267.
  14. Shchelkunov SN., et al. “Human monkeypox and smallpox viruses: genomic comparison”. FEBS Letters 509 (2001): 66-70.
  15. Likos AM., et al. “A tale of two clades: monkeypox viruses”. Journal of General Virology 86 (2005): 2661-2672.
  16. Pox Diseases of Nonhuman Primates. University of South Florida (USF) (2022).
  17. Jezek Z., et al. “Human monkeypox: clinical features of 282 patients”. Journal of Infectious Diseases 156 (1987): 293-298.
  18. Acha PN and Szyfres B. “Zoonoses and Communicable Diseases Common to Man and Animals”. 3rd Edition Volume I. Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Washington, D.C.USA. (2001).
  19. Parker S and Buller RM. “A review of experimental and natural infections of animals with monkeypox virus between 1958 and 2012”. Future Virology 8 (2013 ): 129-157.
  20. Yinka-Ogunleye A., et al. “Outbreak of human monkeypox in Nigeria in 2017-18: A clinical and epidemiological report”. Lancet Infectious Diseases 19 (2019): 872-879.
  21. Petersen E., et al. “Human monkeypox-epidemiological and clinical characteristics, diagnosis and prevention”. Infectious Disease Clinics 33 (2019): 1027-1043.
  22. Sadeuh-Mba S A., et al. “Monkeypox virus phylogenetic similarities between a human case detected in Cameroon in 2018 and the 2017-2018 outbreak in Nigeria”. Infection and Genetic Evolution 69 (2019): 8-11.
  23. Nalca A. “Reemergence of monkeypox: prevalence, diagnostics, and counter measures”. Clinical Infectious Disease 41 (2005): 1765-1771.


Citation: Mahendra Pal., et al. “Human Monkeypox: An Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Viral Disease". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.4 (2022): 146-150.


Copyright: © 2022 Mahendra Pal., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US