Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 5 Issue 4

Myasthenia Gravis and its Physiotherapeutic Management

Basant Kumar Sinha1* and Anshu Singh2

1Ex Professor and Head [Microbiology], Bihar Veterinary College, Patna, Bihar and Guest Faculty [Microbiology], Indian Institute of Health Education and Research, Patna, Bihar and [Biotechnology], Anugrah Narayan College, Patna, Bihar, India

2PG Student (Sports Physiotherapy), Garden City University, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

*Corresponding Author: Basant Kumar Sinha, Ex Professor and Head [Microbiology], Bihar Veterinary College, Patna, Bihar, India.

Received: December 23, 2021; Published: March 03, 2022

Abstract

Myasthenia gravis is caused by a breakdown in the normal communication between nerve and muscles. In this disease neurotransmission is impaired by antibodies against the acetylcholine receptors in the post-synaptic membrane of the muscle. It is considered to be an organ specific autoimmune disease and also due to the thymic abnormalities. In this disease there is weakness of leg and arm muscles, double vision, drooping eyelids and difficulties with speech, chewing, swallowing and breathing. As there is no specific treatment of myasthenia gravis, so physiotherapeutic management can reduce sign and symptoms. However, suppression of production of cyclohexamide receptor antibodies by administrating corticosteroid and immunosuppressive drugs like prednisolone and azoathioprine etc. help in improving myaesthenia gravis. As in some cases, thymoma are frequently associated with autoimmunity so thymectomy may cause reduction of myasthenia gravis as it decreases plasma cell producing antibodies. Because of the various treatment there is marked reduction in the myasthenia gravis.

Keywords:Myaesthenia Gravis; Acetylcholine; Neurotransmission; Thymus; Thymoma; Thymectomy; Immunosuppression; Autoimmunity; Autoantibodies; Neuromuscular

References

  1. Allan H Rooper., et al.Principles of Neurology”. McGraw-Hill Professional; 8 edition (2005).
  2. Annapurni J T., et al. “Autoimmune Diseases fck LR”. 2012 (2012): 874680.
  3. Carr Aisling S., et al. BMC Neurology 10 (2010): 46.
  4. Corrado B., et al. “Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation of Myasthenia Gravis. A Systematic Review of the Literature”. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology4 (2020): 71.
  5. Cup EH., et al. "Exercise therapy and other types of physical therapy for patients with neuromuscular diseases: a systematic review". Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 88 .11 (2007): 1452-1464.
  6. de Kraker M., et al. "CT and myasthenia gravis: correlation between mediastinal imaging and histopathological findings". Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery3 (2005): 267-271.
  7. Engel AG. Myasthenia Gravis and Myaesthenic Disorders (2nd). Oxford University Press, US (2012): 109-110.
  8. Gilhus NE., et al. “Myasthenia gravis (Primer)”. Nature Reviews: Disease Primers1 (2019).
  9. Golnik KC., et al. “An ice test for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis”. Ophthalmology 106 (1999): 1282-1286.
  10. Grob D., et al. “lifetime cause of myasthenia gravis”. Muscles and Nerve 37 (2008) 141-149.
  11. Hehir MK and Silvestri NJ. “Generalized myasthenia gravis: classification, clinical presentation, natural history, and epidemiology”. Neurologic Clinics 2 (2018): 253-260.
  12. Hoch W., et al. “Auto-antibodies to the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK in patients with myasthenia gravis without acetylcholine receptor antibodies”. Nature Medicine 7 (2001): 365-368.
  13. Keesey JC. “Clinical evaluation and management of myasthenia gravis”. Muscle and Nerve: Official Journal of the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine4 (2004): 484-505.
  14. MacDonald BK., et al. “The incidence and life time prevalence of neurological disorders in a prospective community-based study”. Brain 123 (2000): 665-676.
  15. McGrogan A., et al. “The incidence of myasthenia gravis: a systematic literature review”. Neuroepidemiology3 (2010): 171-183.
  16. Nair A., et al. “Ocular myasthenia gravis: a review". Indian Journal of Ophthalmology10 (2014): 985-991.
  17. Osserman KE and Teng P. “Studies in myasthenia gravis—a rapid diagnostic test. Further progress with edrophonium (Tensilon) hydrochloride”. JAMA 160 (1956): 153-155.
  18. Oh , et al. “Diagnostic sensitivity of the laboratory tests in myasthenia gravis”. Muscle Nerve 15 (1992): 720-724.
  19. Phillips WD., et al. “Pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis: update on disease types, models, and mechanisms". F1000 Research (2016).
  20. Potturi Gowrishankar. “Physiotherapy in Nerrological Condition with Assessment and Treatment Protocols”. CBS Publishers and Distributors (2018).
  21. Rassler B., et al. “Effect of respiratory muscles endurance training in patients with myasthenia gravis”. Neuromuscular Disorder 5 (2007): 359-391.
  22. Santos E., et al. Neuromuscular Disorder 28.2 (2018): 150-153.
  23. Scully C. “Scully's Medical Problems in Dentistry”. Elsevier Health Sciences UK (2014).
  24. Sethi KD., et al. “Ice pack test for myasthenia gravis”. Neurology 37 (1987): 1383-1385.
  25. S H Wong., et al. “Effects of balance strategy training in myasthenia gravis: a case study series”. Muscle Nerve1 (2015): e1657-e1658.
  26. Skeie GO., et al. “Guidelines for treatment of autoimmune neuromuscular transmission disorder” European Journal of Neurology74 (2010): 1178-1180.
  27. Thanvi BR and LO TCN. Postgraduation Medical journal 80 (2004): 690-700.
  28. Willis T . “De anima brutorum”. Oxford, UK: Theatro Sheldoniano (1672): 404-406.
  29. Wolfe GI and Barohn RJ. "Myasthenia Gravis: Classification and Outcome Measurements". Myasthenia Gravis and Related Disorders (2009): 293-302.
  30. Wolfe GI., et al. “Randamised trail of thymectomy in mysthenia gravis”. New England Journal of Medicine 375 (2016): 511-522.
  31. , et al. “Physical exercise in myasthenia gravis is safe and improves neuromuscular parameters and physical performance-based measures: A pilot study”. Muscle Nerve 56 (2017): 207-214.

Citation

Citation: Basant Kumar Sinha and Anshu Singh. “Myasthenia Gravis and its Physiotherapeutic Management". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.4 (2022): 06-11.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Basant Kumar Sinha and Anshu Singh. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In






News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US