Fusarium equiseti Isolated from Lysurus periphragmoides Fruiting Body
Uju Marie-Esther Dibua1, Arinze Aru1, Stephen Chiiioke Emencheta2*, Chukwuemeka Ezeh1 and Chibuzor Nwadibe Eze1
1Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author:Stephen Chiiioke Emencheta, Department of
Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
February 20, 2022; Published: February 25, 2022
Background: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the world is increasing. Due to the increasing level of immunocompromised individuals resulting from diseases like HIV/AIDS, other nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are beginning to thrive, causing tuberculous infections. However, information on the contribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) to mycobacterial infections in Africa is scarce due to several factors. Thus, this study is on the co-infectivity of HIV and Atypical Mycobacteria in Nsukka L.G.A.
Materials and Methods: Two hundred cases (100 HIV-negative and 100 HIV-positive patients) (46.5% males and 53.5% females) were identified. The age ranged between 15 and 71 with a mean age of 37.5 years. HIV antibodies were screened using two test kits: the Determine (preliminary test) and the Uni-Gold (consistency test). CD4+ count was determined using cytometry. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) were detected using sputum smear microscopy. AFB positive samples were subjected to nested PCR for species identification. T-test was employed to check for statistical significance between the mean prevalence in test and control groups and CD4 count of HIV single infection and co-infection with TB. Correlation analysis was used to check for the relationship between the demographic characteristics and the disease distribution.
Results: A preponderance of HIV infection was observed among the 21-50 age group (72.5%) with an overall HIV prevalence of 19.4%. The highest AFB prevalence of 26.6% was observed among patients aged 21-30 years, with an overall prevalence of 24%. About 79.1% of TB infections occurred at CD4 count less than 400 cells/μl. Nested PCR showed 97(78.9%) M. tuberculosis, 14(11.4%) M. bovis, and 10(8.1%) NTM. The NTM identified was M. avium complex. The prevalence rate of TB/HIV co-infection was 24(24%), of which 14(53.8%) were M. tuberculosis, 5(20.8%) were M. bovis, and 3(12.5%) were NTM. The highest NTM prevalence of 66.7% was observed among patients aged 21-30 years in the HIV positive group while the highest prevalence of 42.8% was observed among 41-50 years in the HIV negative group. TB co-infection was significantly associated with CD4+ cell count (P < 0.05). Respectively, rural settlers (RR = 1.40, P = 0.002) and those with lower education (RR = 3.17, P = 0.01) were at higher risk of TB co-infection with HIV.
Conclusion: The study underscores the role of nontuberculous AFB in pulmonary tuberculosis especially in HIV patients, and is suggestive of the implication of therapies without discrimination between TB and NTM. Molecular screening assays with rapid detection of NTM infections should be a priority for strengthening the public health response.
Keywords: Tuberculosis; Atypical Mycobacteria; Acid Fast Bacilli; Co-Infection; HIV; Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
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