Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 5 Issue 2

Sulfated Polysaccharide from Marine Red Microalga Porphyridium against SARS-CoV-2 - A Mini-Review

Abdulaziz Radhi S Aljohni1*, Ahad Amer Alsaiari2, Omar Abdulrhman Alfaroq3, Azeza Abdulrhman Alfaroqie3, Abdulrahman Alhomadi Alanezi4, Majed Saad Alahmadi5, Tariq Ibrahim Alhazmy6, Ameenah Mualla Saad Alharbi7 and Bandar Mulfi Alluqmani8

1Phd Microbiology, Department of Laboratory at King Fahad Hospital, Saudi Arabia
2College of Applied Medical Science, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Taif University, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Laboratory at King Fahad Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia
4Chief Technologist of Laboratory, King Fahad Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia
5MSc in Biomedical Science (Blood Science) at Madina Regional Laboratory and Central Blood Bank, Saudi Arabia
6MSc Laboratory Histopathology at Al-Qunfudhah Health Regional Laboratory, Saudi Arabia
7Nursing Specialist, North Makkah Health Sector, Saudi Arabia
8Laboratory Technician Microbiology, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding Author: Abdulaziz Radhi S Aljohni, Phd Microbiology, Department of Laboratory at King Fahad Hospital, Saudi Arabia.

Received: January 13, 2022; Published: February 11, 2022


Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which is transmitted from person to person. Even though felids are the most common hosts of T. gondii, encysted parasites can survive in the tissues of almost any host for an extended period, possibly even for the rest of their lives. Certain clinical cases are the consequence of fresh T. gondii exposures, whereas others are the result of parasites in tissue cysts becoming reactivated, as has happened in some cases recently. Among warm-blooded species, including humans, T. gondii infection is frequent. In immunocompetent, non-pregnant persons who are not pregnant, infection usually results in no sickness or just moderate clinical signs. In contrast, infections acquired during pregnancy can result in minor to severe congenital abnormalities in the fetus, and immunocompromised humans or animals can have severe, life-threatening diseases as a result of these infections. Serious and life-threatening infections in immunocompetent adults in French Guiana and Suriname have recently raised the prospect that some extremely virulent strains of Toxoplasma gondii may occur in tropical woods, according to new findings.

Keywords: Toxoplasmosis; Protozoan Parasite; Toxoplasma gondii; Pathogenesis; History; Cats and Toxoplasmosis; Effect on Pregnancy


    2. Dubey JP. “Toxoplasma, Hammondia, Besnoita, Sarcocystis and other tissue cyst forming coccidia of man and animals”. In Kreier, J.P. (ed.), Parasitic Protozoa III. Academic Press, New York, NY (1997): 101-237.
    3. Remington JS and Desmonts G. “Toxoplasmosis”. In Remington, J.S. and Klein, J.O. (eds), Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA (1989): 89 -195.
    4. Luft BJ and Remington JS. “Toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 15 (1992): 211 -222.
    5. Sibley LD and Boothroyd JC. “Construction of a molecular karyotype for Toxoplasma gondii”. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 51 (1992): 291-300.
    6. Ajioka JW. “Analysis of apicomplexan parasites”. Methods 13 (1997): 79 -80.
    7. Roos DS., et al. “Toxoplasma as a model parasite: apicomplexan biochemistry, cell biology, molecular genetics… and beyond”. In Tschudi, C. and Pearce, E. (eds), Biology of Parasitism. Kluwer Press, Boston, MA (1999): 143 -167.
    8. Ajioka JW., et al. “Gene discovery by EST sequencing in Toxoplasma gondii reveals sequences restricted to the Apicomplexa”. Genome Research 8 (1998): 18-28.
    9. Janssen CS., et al. “Gene discovery in Plasmodium chabaudi by genome survey sequencing”. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 113 (2001) 251-260.
    10. Gavinet MF., et al. “Congenital toxoplasmosis due to maternal reinfection during pregnancy”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology5 (1997): 1276-1277.
    11. McAuley J., et al. “Early and longitudinal evaluations of treated infants and children and untreated historical patients with congenital toxoplasmosis: the Chicago Collaborative Treatment Trial”. Clinical Infectious Diseases1 (1994): 38-72.
    12. Montoya JG and Liesenfeld O. “Toxoplasmosis”. Lancet9425 (2004): 1965-1976.
    13. Dunn D., et al. “Mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis: risk estimates for clinical counselling”. Lancet9167 (1997): 1829-1833.
    14. Berrébi A., et al. “Long-term outcome of children with congenital toxoplasmosis”. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 6 (2010): 552.e1-6.
    15. Fekkar A., et al. “Comparison of immunoblotting, calculation of the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient, and real-time PCR using aqueous humor samples for diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 46 (2008): 1965-1967.
    16. Talabani H., et al. “Contributions of immunoblotting, real-time PCR, and the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient to diagnosis of atypical toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47 (2009): 2131-2135.
    17. Turunen HJ., et al. “Demonstration of intraocular synthesis of immunoglobulin G Toxoplasma antibodies for specific diagnosis of toxoplasmic chorioretinitis by enzyme immunoassay”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 17 (1983): 988-992.
    18. Villard O., et al. “Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and PCR for diagnosis of toxoplasmic chorioretinitis”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 41 (2003): 3537-3541.
    19. Labalette P., et al. “Ocular toxoplasmosis after the fifth decade”. American Journal of Ophthalmology 133 (2002): 506-515.
    20. Montoya JG and Liesenfeld O. "Toxoplasmosis". Lancet 9425 (2004): 1965-1976.
    21. Montoya JG and Remington JS. "Management of Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy". Clinical Infectious Diseases 4 (2008): 554-566.
    22. Jones JL., et al. “Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: seroprevalence and risk factors". American Journal of Epidemiology4 (2001): 357-365.
    23. Pappas G., et al. “Toxoplasmosis snapshots: global status of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence and implications for pregnancy and congenital toxoplasmosis". International Journal for Parasitology 12 (2009): 1385-1394.
    24. CDC - Toxoplasmosis - Epidemiology and Risk Factors.
    25. Lopez A., et al. “Preventing congenital toxoplasmosis". MMWR Recommendations and Reports 49 (2000): 59-68.


    Citation: Abdulaziz Radhi S Aljohni., et al. “Toxoplasmosis Options Now and in the Future”.Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.3 (2022): 03-08.


    Copyright: © 2022 Abdulaziz Radhi S Aljohni.,et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US