Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 5 Issue 2

Sulfated Polysaccharide from Marine Red Microalga Porphyridium against SARS-CoV-2 - A Mini-Review

Mahadev Gaikwad, Yogesh Pawar*, Namrata Gangal, Vinod Nagle and Santanu Dasgupta

A20 R and D, RTG, Reliance Industries Ltd., RCP, Ghansoli, Thane, Maharashtra, India

*Corresponding Author: Santanu Dasgupta, A20 R and D, RTG, Reliance Industries Ltd., RCP, Ghansoli, Thane, Maharashtra, India

Received: January 03, 2022; Published: January 31, 2022


The recent pandemic of coronavirus, COVID 19, has made researchers to search for novel antidotes against SARS-CoV-2. Utilizing all the available information on this pandemic scientific communities are currently working hard to find antidote. Activity of sulfated polysaccharides is observed on both enveloped and non-enveloped virus against the binding or entry inside the cell. Exopolysaccharides from Porphyridium have antiviral SPs which are active against respiratory coronaviruses. Sanitary items can be coated with these bioactive compounds to prevent COVID-19 infections.

Keywords: Porphyridium; COVID-19; Polysaccharides; Carrageenan


  1. E De Clercq. "Antiviral drugs in current chemical reviews”. Journal of Clinical Virology 30 (2004): 115-133.
  2. R Ginsberg W., et al. “Inhibition of mumps virus multiplication by a polysaccharide”. Proceedings of the Society Experimental Biology and Medicine 66 (1947).
  3. AJ Nahmias and S Kibrick. "Inhibitory effect of heparin on herpes simplex virus”. Journal of Bacteriology5 (1964): 1060-1066.
  4. G Bedoux., et al. “Antiviral and Cytotoxic Activities of Polysaccharides Extracted from Four Tropical Seaweed Species”. Natural Product Communications6 (2017): 807-811.
  5. Z Sun., et al. “Aloe Polysaccharides Inhibit Influenza A Virus Infection-A Promising Natural Anti-flu Drug”. Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018): 2338.
  6. H Xirui., et al. “Advances in antiviral polysaccharides derived from edible and medicinal plants and mushrooms”. Carbohydrate Polymers 229 (2020): 115548.
  7. A Piperno., et al. “Exploring the entrapment of antiviral agents in hyaluronic acid-cyclodextrin conjugates”. Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry 93 (2019): 33-40.
  8. J Wilson. "The Efficacy of Utilizing Chitosan as an Antiviral Agent in Water Treatmen, Masters dissertation”. Emory University (2015).
  9. C Gugliandolo., et al. “Antiviral and immunomodulatory effects of a novel bacterial exopolysaccharide of shallow marine vent origin”. Journal of Applied Microbiology4 (2014): 1028-1034.
  10. V Rincão., et al. “Polysaccharides and extracts from Lentinula edodes: structural features and antiviral activity”. Virology Journal 15 (2012): 37.
  11. M Talyshinsky., et al. “Anti-viral activity of red microalgal polysaccharides against retroviruses”. Cancer Cell International 2 (2002): 8.
  12. HHA Gomaa and GA Elshoubaky. "Antiviral Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharides Carrageenan from Some Marine Seaweeds”. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Review and Research1 (2015): 34-42.
  13. A Ahmadi., et al. “Antiviral Potential of Algae Polysaccharides Isolated from Marine Sources: A Review”. BioMed Research International (2015).
  14. NV Krylova., et al. “The Comparative Analysis of Antiviral Activity of Native and Modified Fucoidans from Brown Algae Fucus evanescens In Vitro and In Vivo”. Marine Drugs 18 (2020): 224.
  15. C Almeida., et al. “Bioactivities from marine algae of the genus Gracilaria”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences7 (2011): 550-573.
  16. C Sasone., et al. “Marine Algal Antioxidants as Potential Vectors for Controlling Viral Diseases”. Antioxidants 9 (2020): 392.
  17. GA Lutzu., et al. “Feasibility of attached cultivation for polysaccharides production by Porphyridium cruentum”. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 40 (2017): 73-83.
  18. S Singh., et al. “Extracellular polysaccharide production in outdoor mass cultures of Porphyridium in flat plate glass reactors”. Journal of Applied Phycology 12 (2000): 269-275.
  19. M Gaikwad., et al. “On occurrence of the genus Porphyridium nageli: New to India”. Journal of Algal Biomass Utilization1 (2009): 102-106.
  20. B Simon., et al. “Degradation of the cell-wall polysaccharide of Porphyridium (Rhodophyta) by means of enzymatic activity of its predator Gymnodium sp. (Pyrrophyta)”. Journal of Phycology28 (1992): 460-465.
  21. S Garesh., et al. “Characterization of the extracellular polysaccharide of Porphyridium: molecular weight determination and rheological properties”. Carbohydrate Polymer 50.2 (2002): 83-189.
  22. SB Majee., et al. “Pharmacological, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and diagnostic applications of sulfated polysaccharides from marine algae and bacteria”. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology5 (2017): 68-77.
  23. CA Pujol., et al. “Novel dl-galactan hybrids from the red seaweed Gymnogongrus torulosus are potent inhibitors of herpes simplex virus and dengue virus”. Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy 13 (2002): 83-89.
  24. Burrell J., et al. “Fenner and White's Medical Virology”. Academic Press (2016).
  25. H Harapan., et al. “Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A literature review”. Journal of Infection and Public Health 13 (2020): 667-673.
  26. R Lu., et al. “Genomic characterization and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding”. The Lancet10224 (2020): 565-574.
  27. A Fip Health. "CORONAVIRUS SARS-CoV-2/ COVID-19 PANDEMIC: Information and interim guidelines for pharmacists and the pharmacy workforce” (2020).
  28. SR Weiss and SN Martin. "Coronavirus Pathogenesis and the Emerging Pathogen Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus”. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews4 (2005): 635- 664.
  29. Q Li., et al. “Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia”. The New England Journal of Medicine13 (2020): 1199-1207.
  30. W Yu., et al. “Decoding the evolution and transmissions of the novel pneumonia coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2/HCoV-19) using whole genomic data”. Zoological Research3 (2020): 247.
  31. U Kramer., et al. “Is there any correlation between severity of epilepsy and cognitive abilities in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy?”. European Journal of Neurology2 (2006): 130-134.
  32. I Wijesekara., et al. “Biological activities and potential health benefits of sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae”. Carbohydrate Polymers1 (2011): 14-21.
  33. DH Ngo and K Se-Kwon. "Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae”. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 62 (2003): 70-75.
  34. P Seedevi., et al. “Isolation and characterization of sulfated polysaccharides from Codium tomentosum (J. Stackhouse, 1797) collected from southeast coast of India”. Advances in Applied Science Research5 (2013): 72-77.
  35. TH Silva., et al. “Marine algae sulfated polysaccharides for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches”. Biomatter4 (2012): 278-289.
  36. RS Aquino., et al. “Rising from the Sea: Correlations between Sulfated Polysaccharides and Salinity in Plants”. PLoS ONE4 (2011): e18862.
  37. HB Nader., et al. “Heparins and heparinoids: occurrence, structure and mechanism of antithrombotic and hemorrhagic activities”. Current Pharmaceutical Design 10 (2004): 951-966.
  38. VH Pomin. "Structural and functional insights into sulfated galactans: a systematic review”. Glycoconjugate Journal 27 (2010): 1-12.
  39. J Silva., et al. “Biological activities of the sulfated polysaccharide from the vascular plant Halodule wrightii”. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 1 (2012): 94-101.
  40. T Ghosh., et al. “Focus on antivirally active sulfated polysaccharides: from structure-activity analysis to clinical evaluation”. Glycobiology1 (2009): 2-15.
  41. C Parish., et al. “A Polyanion Binding Site on the CD4 Molecule. Proximity to the HIV-gp120 Binding Region”. Journal of Immunology 145 (1990): 1188-1195.
  42. M Andrew and G Jayaraman. "Marine sulfated polysaccharides as potential antiviral drug candidates to treat Corona Virus disease (COVID-19)”. Carbohydrate Research 505 (2021): 108326.
  43. PS Kwon., et al. “Sulfated polysaccharides effectively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro”. Cell Discovery 6 (2020): 50.
  44. A Salih., et al. “Marine Sulfated Polysaccharides as Promising Antiviral Agents: A Comprehensive Report and Modeling Study Focusing on SARS CoV-2”. Marine Drugs 19 (2021): 406.
  45. S Song., et al. “Inhibitory activities of marine sulfated polysaccharides against SARS-CoV-2”. Food and Function9 (2020): 7415-7420.
  46. P Adhika., et al. “Bioactivity of Red Seaweed Gracilaria arcuata against Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio sp”. The Natural Products Journal 8 (2018): 147.
  47. C Gaignard., et al. “Screening of marine microalgae: Investigation of new exopolysaccharide producers”. Algal Research - Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproducts 44 (2019): 101711.
  48. Z Csogör., et al. “Growth and product formation of Porphyridium purpureum”. Journal of Applied Phycology 13 (2001): 317-324.
  49. N Soanen., et al. “Improvement of exopolysaccharide production by Porphyridium marinum”. Bioresource Technology 213 (2016): 231-238.
  50. V Venugopal. "Sulfated and non-sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds and their uses: An overview”. EC Nutrition 14 (2019): 126-141.
  51. S Arad., et al. “The potential of production of sulfated polysaccharides from Porphyridium”. Plant and Soil 89 (1985): 117-127.
  52. DMRMBDMAM Raposo MF. "Bioactivity and applications of sulfated polysaccharides from marine microalgae”. Marine Drugs 11 (2013): 233-252.
  53. C Gaignard., et al. “New horizons in culture and valorization of red microalgae”. Biotechnology Advances 37 (2019): 193-222.
  54. L Periera. “Therapeutic and Nutritional Uses of Algae”. A Science publisher’s book. CRC Press18 895.
  55. G Jiao., et al. “Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae”. Marine Drugs 9 (2011): 196-223.
  56. M Koenighofer., et al. “Carrageenan nasal spray in virus confirmed common cold: individual patient data analysis of two randomized controlled trials”. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine 9 (2014): 57.
  57. M Morokutti-Kurz., et al. “Amylmetacresol/2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol, hexylresorcinol, or carrageenan lozenges as active treatments for sore throat”. International Journal of General Medicine 10 (2017): 53-60.
  58. C Graf., et al. “Development of a nasal spray containing xylometazoline hydrochloride and iota-carrageenan for the symptomatic relief of nasal congestion caused by rhinitis and sinusitis”. International Journal of General Medicine 11 (2018): 275-283.
  59. G Andreas and P Eva. "Antiviral composition comprising sulfated polysaccharide”. US Patent 0059919 A1 (2011).
  60. A Leibbrandt., et al. “Iota-Carrageenan Is a Potent Inhibitor of Influenza A Virus Infection”. PLoS ONE12 (2010): e14320.
  61. "” (2021).
  62. JM Figueroa., et al. “Efficacy of a Nasal Spray Containing Iota-Carrageenan in the Postexposure Prophylaxis of COVID-19 in Hospital Personnel Dedicated to Patients Care with COVID-19 Disease”. International Journal of General Medicine 14 (2021): 6277-6286.
  63. JR Ramalingam., et al. “Commercial scale production of carrageenan from red alga”. Seaweed Research and Utilisation1 and 2 (2003): 37-46.
  64. P Carthew. "Safety of carrageenan in foods”. Environmental Health Perspectives4 (2002): A176-A176.
  65. M Ziadi., et al. “Evaluation of the Efficiency of Ethanol Precipitation and Ultrafiltration on the Purification and Characteristics of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Three Lactic Acid Bacteria”. BioMed Research International (2018).
  66. M Huheihel., et al. “Antiviral effect of red microalgal polysaccharides on Herpes simplex and Varicella zoster viruses”. Journal of Applied Phycology 13 (2001): 127-134.
  67. Q Xu., et al. “Use of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine in Preparation of Drugs for Modulating Microorganisms on Mucus Membrane". CA Patent 2539286 A1 (2005).
  68. D Lemos., et al. “Rheological characterization of exopolysaccharides from Porphyridium microalgae”. in Frontiers in Marine Science Conference Abstract: IMMR'18 International Meeting on Marine Research (2018).
  69. JK Chen., et al. “N-Acetylglucosamine: Production and Applications”. Marine Drugs 8 (2010): 2493-2516.
  70. SIravani and RS Varma. "Important Roles of Oligo- and Polysaccharides against SARS-CoV-2: Recent Advances”. Applied Sciences 11 (2021): 3512.


Citation: Mahadev Gaikwad.,et al. “Sulfated Polysaccharide from Marine Red Microalga Porphyridium against SARS-CoV-2 - A Mini-Review". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.2 (2022): 128-136.


Copyright: © 2022 Reliance Industries Ltd. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US