Compost Soil Amendment: An Approach to Enhance Crop Productivity by Improving Soil Physiology
Department of Biotechnology, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
*Corresponding Author: Ieshita Pan, Department of Biotechnology, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
December 15, 2021; Published: January 31, 2022
An excellent alternative for improving soil quality is composting, where intricate organic matter is converted into the simple stable end product through microbial decomposition. Although mainstream research has focused on environmental impacts, compost production and use, few reports point out key contributors and their mechanism to improve soil. In the past, the use of organic supplements to control soil biological remediation has been successful, but humus has been required as an external supplement to increase fertility. This study summarizes the role of key contributor in composting to improve crop productivity. In order to identify that, various soil quality indicators are examined. In all cases (1) The humic acid concentration is directly proportional to soil nutrient contents, NPK, available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other parameters such as soil enzymes, CEC, water holding capacity, and microbial colonization. (2) The external addition of humus increases production costs. However, process modification either by microbes or the addition of mineral additives/fillers during composting is economical and can improve the humification process by preventing nitrogen loss. The humus-rich, inexpensive use of compost protects the quality of the environment because it breaks down solid waste. (3) To make a long profit from the compost, the product must be mature, stable, and free from pathogens. Recent development has not only limited itself to microbial degradation in order to obtain high quality compost, but has also produced commercial formulations. Almost all solid organic wastes are enriched with lignocellulose, and microbial inoculation allows about 30% improved deterioration compared to non-inoculated treatment to obtain humus-like substances. This review article discusses about the easiest way to enrich the soil with humus through microbial degradation of lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose in bio-organic waste to form compost, promote soil fertility and at the same time keep the environment clean and healthy. Not only soil fertility but also the development of high quality, nutritious food is urgently needed for new cultivation methods. Instruction to maintain the international economy and to protect the environment, soil amendment with compost is the necessity as it correlates with humus enrichment.
Keywords: Composting; Fertility; Humification; Maturity; Sustainable Agriculture; Waste Management
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