Titas Sarkar*, Anamika Saha, Mayukh Maji, Dipak Kumar Singha and Manas Chakraborty
Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and AHS, Howrah, West Bengal, India
*Corresponding Author: Titas Sarkar, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and AHS, Howrah, West Bengal, India.
Received: December 07, 2021; Published: January 10, 2022
The study investigated and characterized the microbes that contaminate Salacia reticulata herbal extracts used as an antidiabetic herbal formula. Also investigated was the microbial load of these herbal powders by pour plate technique and HiChrome agar spread plate methods. The characterization of the isolated microbes confirmed the dominance of members of the genus Bacillus by 16 sRNA sequencing. The fungal sps was found to be Aspergillus that was present in the raw material and also in the dry powder extract of Salacia. While the bacterial count was in the range of 104 to 105 cfu/g, the fungal count of Salacia extract ranged from 2.0 x101cfu/g to 1.9 x102 cfu/g. The isolated bacteria showed sensitivity towards Tetracycline, Gentamycin, Tobramycin, Kanamycin, Streptomycin, Ampicillin, Doripenum, Tripethoprim, Rifampicin and Fusidic acid and resistance towards the action of Azithomycin, Penicillin G, Carbenecillin, Moxifloxacin, Vancomycin and Nalidixic acid. Since tetracycline is a heat-labile antibiotic, we carried out a downstream process of extraction of one of the herbal raw material of Salacia reticulata with water with and without tetracycline. The obtained Salacia extract powders were then subjected to microbial counts and the results indicate >99.99% reduction in the bacterial and yeast and molds load by the proposed manufacturing process. Similar rate of microbial load reduction was seen when the Salacia extract with the microbial load of >104 cfu/g was treated with tetracycline. The residual tetracycline in the final extract preparations was lesser than 5% to the original concentration used. This study emphasizes the need for constant monitoring and control of the standards of herbal medicines and discloses a simple method to reduce the microbial load present in the herbal samples using antibiotics so that after treatment, the microbial load are well within WHO standard.The word Transgenic stands for one or more DNA sequences from another species have been introduced by artificial ways. Transgenic animals are used as biomedical models in laboratory research, like rodent species. Rodent species which are important tools for researching human disease. These transgenic animals easily understands gene function in case of any disease and helps to determine the disease. Transgenic animals helps to produce complex human proteins in very large quantities. Transgenic animals have foreign genes in their genome and for this reason they can show some special properties other than normal animals. These properties lead to discover new drugs, helps in gene therapy etc. In case of gene therapy as defected genes could not function, so healthy genes are inserted by the help of vectors in th human body. Other than this, transgenic animals help in xerotransplantation. Pig is the experimental animal in case of xerotransplantation. Transgenic animals also play important role in agricultural field. Amount of milk with good quality and healthy meat have increased and farmers get benefited due to transgenic animals. These genetically modified animals are disease resistant and used in industrial purposes also.
Keywords:Embryonic Stem Cell; Mediated Transgenesis; Pronuclear Micro-injection; Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer; Sperm Mediated Transgenesis; Transgenic Animals
Citation: Titas Sarkar., et al. “Transgenic Animal - Mini Review". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.2 (2022): 27-30.
Copyright: © 2022 Titas Sarkar., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.