Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Short Communication Volume 5 Issue 1

The Maternal Microbiota impact on Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review

Poorva Rao1, Ketaki Rajwade1, Preeti Arora1, Anita Tiknaik1, Sreeja Parthasarthy1, Sharvari Ozalkar1, Pradnya Nikam1, Sanjay Gupte1,2 and Sarjan Shah1

1Greenarray Genomic Research and Solutions, a division of Accurate Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd., Kothrud, Pune, India
2Director, Gupte Hospital, Postgraduate Institution and Centre of Research in Reproduction, Pune, India

*Corresponding Author: Sanjay Gupte, Director, Gupte Hospital, Postgraduate Institution and Centre of Research in Reproduction, Pune, India.

Received: December 13, 2021; Published: December 31, 2021

Human Microbiome is the community of micro-organisms that lives in and on the human body. The human microbiome consist more than 100 trillion cells, which are ten times more than human cells and contain 27 times more genes than the human genome. The microbes reside on different sites of human body. For example, the skin, mouth, nasal cavity, gut, reproductive tract, and possibly the placenta host unique microbial communities [1]. Human microbiota includes archaea, Protista, bacteria, fungi, and viruses that exist on and within the human tissues, fluids and body cavities, along with varied anatomical sites. This microbiota plays an important role in immune system, human physiology and nutrition. In the human body, a large number of microorganisms exist in a mutualistic, peaceful relationship, but in immunosuppressed situations, a few of them become opportunistic, resulting to acute, deadly, and chronic illnesses. Every human body hosts unique microbiome within itself, which enables different individuals to behave differently when encountered with external stress [2]. From childbirth, a steady interaction (symbiosis) between the human body and its indigenous microbiota begins. Organisms that make up the microbiota have actively adjusted to their specific habitats and exist in their distinct niche within the human body through co-evolution. These creatures are identified as part of the body and cause a variety of alterations in lifetime. In reaction to host circumstances, the human microbiome is continually changing. At any one time, factors like age, nutrition, lifestyle, hormonal fluctuations, inherited genes, and underlying disease are key determinants of the human microbiome. However, a change in the human microbiota makeup (dysbiosis) can result in life- threatening disorders [3]. A balanced microbiota has shown to play an important role in health sustenance [3]. The maternal pregnancy microbiome affects the mother’s health and foetal development [4]. Thus, the dysbiosis of microbiome of pregnant woman may lead to a wide range of pregnancy problems. According to recent research, the number and composition of some gut microbiomes are altered during pregnancy complications. Maternal microbiomes have the potential to impact the physiological metabolism, immunological system, and inflammatory response of pregnant women [5]. The present review focuses and highlights the major impact of the maternal microbiomes in adverse pregnancy outcomes like, preterm birth, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and recurrent miscarriages.

References

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  2. Gupta P., et al. “Diversity of Vaginal Microbiome in Pregnancy: Deciphering the Obscurity”. Frontiers in Public Health 8 (2020): 326.
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  11. Amarasekara R., et al. “Microbiome of the placenta in pre-eclampsia supports the role of bacteria in the multifactorial cause of pre-eclampsia”. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 5 (2015): 662-669.
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Citation

Citation: Sanjay Gupte., et al. “The Maternal Microbiota impact on Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review". Acta Scientific Microbiology 5.1 (2022): 104-106.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Sanjay Gupte., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




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