Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research ArticleVolume 4 Issue 10

The Comparative Between Gut Microbiota in Type 2 Patients Diabetes and Health People

Hanan K Bokhamada, Intesar Ahmad Hasan Elmasli and Hind A Elzletni*

Biology Department, Faculty of Education, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya

*Corresponding Author: Hind A Elzletni, Biology Department, Faculty of Education, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya.

Received: September 06, 2021; Published: September 25, 2021

Citation: Hind A Elzletni., et al. “The Comparative Between Gut Microbiota in Type 2 Patients Diabetes and Health People". Acta Scientific Microbiology 4.10 (2021):.


The Diabetes it is a major contributor to the development of many pathological ‎processes including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases. ‎both animal and human studies indicates that gut ‎microbial change is associated with diabetes, but such an association with T2DM in Libyan people is not known. Therefore, the aim of present study is to recognize if ‎there is a difference in the bacterial composition between Libyan diabetic patients and ‎a healthy control. Also, to find whether there is a relationship between bacterial ‎composition and diverse factors such as FBS, HbA1c, and lipid profile and ‎body composition. Two groups of participated in this study including 20 ‎patients with type 2 diabetes and 28 healthy control subjects were involved. ‎The fecal microbiota structure at level of species was investigated by using ‎conventional culture method. There was significant difference in gut bacteria ‎between diabetic patients and healthy control. The relative abundance of B. vulgatus, and B. rodentium were significantly declined in the diabetic group ‎compared to non-diabetic group (P = 0.008, P = 0.018) but B. vulgatus ‎negatively and significantly correlated to level of HDL-C (P = 0.015). Moreover, ‎the relative abundance of L. acidophilus reduced significantly (P = 0.02) and ‎correlated positively and significantly with Fasting blood sugar (P = 0.001) ‎and HbA1c (P = 0.016) in diabetic patients compared to the healthy control ‎group. Our results show that T2DM is associated with compositional ‎alterations in gut microbiota. B. vulgatus, B. rodentium and L. acidophilus B. ‎may be possible indicators of T2DM. The interaction of specific gut microbiota ‎with FBG, HbA1c, and HDL-C should be considered as potential interest for ‎future studies to develop better approaches for the prevention and treatment of ‎T2DM by modulation of gut microbiota. ‎


Keywords: Diabetes; Gut Microbiota; FSB; HbA1c; Lipid Profile


  1. Saeedi P., et al. “Global And Regional Diabetes Prevalence Estimates For 2019 And Projections For 2030 And 2045: Results From The International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 157 (2019): 107843.
  2. Sircana A., et al. “Altered Gut Microbiota In Type 2 Diabetes: Just A Coincidence?” Current Diabetes Reports 10 (2018): 1-11.
  3. Backhed F., et al. “The Gut Microbiota As An Environmental Factor That Regulates Fat Storage”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 44 (2004): 15718-15723.
  4. Jumpertz R., et al. “Energy-Balance Studies Reveal Associations Between Gut Microbes, Caloric Load, And Nutrient Absorption In Humans”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1 (2011): 58-65.
  5. Cani PD., et al. “Changes In Gut Microbiota Control Metabolic Endotoxemia-Induced Inflammation In High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity And Diabetes In Mice”. Diabetes 6 (2008): 1470-1481.
  6. Sayin SI., et al. “Gut Microbiota Regulates Bile Acid Metabolism By Reducing The Levels Of Tauro-Beta-Muricholic Acid, A Naturally Occurring Fxr Antagonist”. Cell Metabolism 2 (2013): 225-235.
  7. Ma Q., et al. “Research Progress In The Relationship Between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Intestinal Flora”. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 117 (2019): 109138
  8. Rinninella E., et al. “What Is The Healthy Gut Microbiota Composition? A Changing Ecosystem Across Age, Environment, Diet, And Diseases”. Microorganism 1 (2019): 14.
  9. Fernandes G., et al. “Enterotypes Of The Human Gut Microbiome”. Nature 7346 (2011): 174180.
  10. Magn F., et al. “The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes Ratio: A Relevant Marker Of Gut Dysbiosis In Obese Patients?” Nutrients 5 (2020): 1474.
  11. Qin J., et al. “A Metagenome-Wide Association Study Of Gut Microbiota In Type 2 Diabetes”. Nature 7418 (2012): 55-60.
  12. Larsen N., et al. “Gut Microbiota In Human Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Differs From Non-Diabetic Adults”. Plos One2 (2010): E9085.
  13. Remely M., et al. “Abundance And Diversity Of Microbiota In Type 2 Diabetes And Obesity”. Journal of Diabetes Metabolism 253 (2013): 2.
  14. Ley RE., et al. “Human Gut Microbes Associated With Obesity”. Nature 7122 (2006): 1022-1023.
  15. Ley RE., et al. “Obesity Alters Gut Microbial Ecology”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 31 (2005): 11070-11075.
  16. Dao MC., et al. “Losing Weight For A Better Health: Role For The Gut Microbiota. Clinical Nutrition Experimental 6 (2016): 39-58.
  17. Alshkri M and Elmehdawi R. “Metabolic Syndrome Among Type-2 Diabetic Patients In Benghazi-Libya: A Pilot Study”. Libyan Journal of Medicine 4 (2008): 1-6.
  18. Friedewald WT., et al. “Estimation Of The Concentration Of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol In Plasma, Without Use Of The Preparative Ultracentrifuge”. Clinical Chemistry 6 (1972): 499-502.
  19. Jiang Y. “Changes Of Intestinal Flora And Cell Factors In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes”. Zhongguo Weishengtaxixue Zazhi/Chinese Journal Of Microecology 4 (2016): 429-435.
  20. Leite AZ., et al. “Detection Of Increased Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels And Prevalence Of Prevotella Copri And Bacteroides Vulgatus In The Feces Of Type 2 Diabetes Patients”. Frontiers In Immunology 8 (2017): 1107.
  21. Wu X., et al. “Molecular Characterisation Of The Faecal Microbiota In Patients With Type Ii Diabetes”. Current Microbiology1 (2010): 69-78.
  22. Huang X and Huang X. “Study On Intestinal Flora Of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes”. Hebei Medicine 17 (2014): 1041-1043.
  23. Ahmad A., et al. “Analysis Of Gut Microbiota Of Obese Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes And Healthy Individuals”. Plos One 12 (2019): E0226372.
  24. Zhang X., et al. “Human Gut Microbiota Changes Reveal The Progression Of Glucose Intolerance”. Plos One 8 (2013): E71108.
  25. Lambeth SM., et al. “Composition, Diversity And Abundance Of Gut Microbiome In Prediabetes And Type 2 Diabetes”. Journal of Diabetes and Obesity 3 (2015): 1-7.
  26. Pedersen R., et al. “Characterisation Of Gut Microbiota In Ossabaw And Göttingen Minipigs As Models Of Obesity And Metabolic Syndrome”. Plos One 2 (2013): E56612.
  27. Hansen AK., et al. “Impact Of The Gut Microbiota On Rodent Models Of Human Disease”. World Journal of Gastroenterology 47 (2014): 17727-17736.
  28. Turnbaugh P., et al. “A Core Gut Microbiome In Obese And Lean Twins. Nature457, 480–484”. Us Department Of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (2007): 57-62.
  29. Krajmalnik‐Brown R., et al. “Effects Of Gut Microbes On Nutrient Absorption And Energy Regulation”. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 2 (2012): 201-214.
  30. Sanz Y., et al. “Understanding The Role Of Gut Microbiome In Metabolic Disease Risk”. Pediatric Research 1 (2015): 236-244.
  31. Duncan SH., et al. “Human Colonic Microbiota Associated With Diet, Obesity And Weight Loss”. International Journal of Obesity 11 (2008): 1720-1724.
  32. Furet JP., et al. “Differential Adaptation Of Human Gut Microbiota To Bariatric Surgery-Induced Weight Loss: Links With Metabolic And Low-Grade Inflammation Markers”. Diabetes 12 (2010): 3049-3057.
  33. Velagapudi VR., et al. “The Gut Microbiota Modulates Host Energy And Lipid Metabolism In Mice”. Journal of Lipid Research 5 (2010): 1101-1112.
  34. Allayee H and Hazen SL. “Contribution Of Gut Bacteria To Lipid Levels: Another Metabolic Role For Microbes?”. Circulation Research 9 (2015): 750-754.
  35. Fu J., et al. “The Gut Microbiome Contributes To A Substantial Proportion Of The Variation In Blood Lipids”. Circulation Research 9 (2015): 817-824.
  36. Levine DM., et al. “In Vivo Protection Against Endotoxin By Plasma High Density Lipoprotein”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 24 (1993): 12040-12044.
  37. Figueirêdo PM., et al. “Serum High-Density Lipoprotein (Hdl) Inhibits In Vitro Enterohemolysin (Ehly) Activity Produced By Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli”. Fems Immunology and Medical Microbiology 1 (2003): 53-57.
  38. Eid HM., et al. “Significance Of Microbiota In Obesity And Metabolic Diseases And The Modulatory Potential By Medicinal Plant And Food Ingredients”. Frontiers In Pharmacology 8 (2017): 387.
  39. WU Wen-Jun., et al. “Investigation Of Intestinal Flora Situation Of Elderly Patients With Type 2 Diabetes”. Chinese Journal of General Practitioners 5 (2014): 743-744.
  40. Pushpanathan P., et al. “Gut Microbiota In Type 2 Diabetes Individuals And Correlation With Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein1 And Interferon Gamma From Patients Attending A Tertiary Care Centre In Chennai, India”. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 4 (2016): 523-530.
  41. Halawa MR., et al. “The Gut Microbiome, Lactobacillus Acidophilus; Relation With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus”. Current Diabetes Reviews 6 (2019): 480-485.
  42. Ejtahed HS., et al. “Probiotic Yogurt Improves Antioxidant Status In Type 2 Diabetic Patients”. Nutrition 5 (2012): 539-543.
  43. Ostadrahimi A., et al. “Effect Of Probiotic Fermented Milk (Kefir) On Glycemic Control And Lipid Profile In Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial”. Iranian Journal of Public Health 2 (2015): 228-237.
  44. Li X., et al. “Effects Of Lactobacillus Casei Ccfm419 On Insulin Resistance And Gut Microbiota In Type 2 Diabetic Mice”. Beneficial Microbes 3 (2017): 421-432.
  45. Wirth R., et al. “Regionally Distinct Alterations In The Composition Of The Gut Microbiota In Rats With Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes”. Plos One 12 (2014): E110440.
  46. Ahmadi S., et al. “Metformin Reduces Aging-Related Leaky Gut And Improves Cognitive Function By Beneficially Modulating Gut Microbiome/Goblet Cell/Mucin Axis”. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A 7 (2020): E9-E21.
  47. Mohamed RS., et al. “Relation Of Lactobacilli Acidophilus To Obesity In Egyptian Population”. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 2 (2020): 258-264.
  48. Forslund K., et al. “Disentangling Type 2 Diabetes And Metformin Treatment Signatures In The Human Gut Microbiota”. Nature 7581 (2015): 262-266.
  49. Sedighi M., et al. “Comparison Of Gut Microbiota In Adult Patients With Type 2 Diabetes And Healthy Individuals”. Microbial Pathogenesis 111 (2017): 362-369.
  50. Karlsson FH., et al. “Gut Metagenome In European Women With Normal, Impaired And Diabetic Glucose Control”. Nature 7452 (2013): 99-103.

Copyright: © 2021 Hind A Elzletni., et al. “Recombinant Vaccines - Rise of a New Era of Vaccination". This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
    Use KmsPico to obtain a Windows and Office license.

Contact US