Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review ArticleVolume 4 Issue 10

The Role of Pd-L1 on Tumor Cells in Host Immune System Escape and Tumor Immunotherapy by Pd-L1 Blockade; Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Immunotherapy

Mehmet Eraslan*

Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Science and Literature, Turkey

*Corresponding Author: Mehmet Eraslan, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Science and Literature, Turkey.

Received: August 26, 2021; Published: September 15, 2021

Citation: Mehmet Eraslan. “The Role of Pd-L1 on Tumor Cells in Host Immune System Escape and Tumor Immunotherapy by Pd-L1 Blockade; Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Immunotherapy". Acta Scientific Microbiology 4.10 (2021): 45-55.

Abstract

  Immune checkpoints are a group of inhibitory mechanisms that are encoded into the immune system. Mice treated with anti-PD L1 or PD-1-deficient animals showed increased tumorigenesis and invasiveness in syngeneic hosts when compared to parental tumor cells lacking PD-L. The classical type of programmed cell death is distinguished by its morphological hallmarks of apoptosis and its reliance on de novo RNA and protein production. The PD-1 gene was active in both stimulated 2B4.11 and IL-3-depleted LyD9 cells. The findings imply that the genetic landscape of lung malignancies influences anti-PD-1 therapeutic responsiveness. Immune resistance can be overcome by blocking the inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1), which is produced by T cells. An antibody that precisely targets PD-1, was considered for anticancer efficacy and safety. There is a link between PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and objective response. In patients with advanced malignancies such as non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, and renal-cell cancer, antibody-mediated PD-L1 inhibition resulted in long-term tumor shrinkage and disease stability.

Keyword: Immunotherapy; PD-1 and PD-L1; Anti-PD-L1; Cancer; Blockade of CTLA-4; Tumor

Bibliography

  1. Burnet M. “Cancer-A Biological Approach I. The Processes Of Control”. British Medical Journal 1 (1957): 779-786.
  2. Chambers C A., et al. “CTLA-4-mediated inhibition in regulation of T cell responses: Mechanisms and manipulation in tumor immunotherapy”. Annual Review of Immunology 19 (2001): 565-594.
  3. Gianchecchi E., et al. “Recent insights into the role of the PD-1/PDL1 pathway in immunological tolerance and autoimmunity”. Autoimmune Review 12 (2013): 1091-1100.
  4. Iwai Y., et al. “Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape from host immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99 (2002): 12293-12297.
  5. Leach D R., et al. “Enhancement of antitumor immunity by CTLA4 blockade”. Science (80-. ). 271 (1996): 1734-1736.
  6. Iwai Y., et al. “Cancer immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 signaling pathway”. Journal of Biomedical Science 24 (2017): 1-11.
  7. Ciardiello F., et al. Annals of Oncology Advance Access. Annals of Oncology (2016): 1055-1061.
  8. Lei Q., et al. “Resistance Mechanisms of Anti-PD1/PDL1 Therapy in Solid Tumors”. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 8 (2020): 672.
  9. Pardoll D M. “The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy”. Nature Review on Cancer 12 (2012): 252-264.
  10. Dammeijer F., et al. “The PD-1/PD-L1-Checkpoint Restrains T cell Immunity in TumorDraining Lymph Nodes”. Cancer Cell 38 (2020): 685-700.e8.
  11. Kuol N., et al. “Apostolopoulos, V. PD-1 / PD-L1 in disease”. 10 (2018): 149-160.
  12. Zhou Y., et al. “PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in 132 recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: The correlation with anemia and outcomes”. Oncotarget 8 (2017): 51210-51223.
  13. Han Y., et al. “PD-1/PD-L1 pathway: current researches in cancer”. American Journal of Cancer Research 10 (2020): 727-742.
  14. Wu X., et al. “Application of PD-1 Blockade in Cancer Immunotherapy”. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal 17 (2019): 661-674.
  15. Daskivich T J and Belldegrun A. “Safety, activity, and immune correlates of anti-PD-1 antibody in cancer”. European Urology 67 (2015): 816-817.
  16. Xue Y., et al. “Platinum-based chemotherapy in combination with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors: preclinical and clinical studies and mechanism of action”. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 18 (2021): 187-203.
  17. Fransen M F., et al. “Tumor-draining lymph nodes are pivotal in PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint therapy”. JCI Insight 3 (2018): 1-6.
  18. Brahmer J R., et al. “Safety and Activity of Anti-PD-L1 Antibody in Patients with Advanced Cancer”. The New England Journal of Medicine 366 (2012): 2455-2465.
  19. Rizvi N A., et al. HHS Public Access 348 (2016): 124-128.
  20. Massard C., et al. “Safety and efficacy of durvalumab (MEDI4736), an anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, in patients with advanced urothelial bladder cancer”. Journal of Clinical Oncology 34 (2016): 3119-3125.
  21. Ishida Y., et al. “Induced expression of PD-1, a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, upon programmed cell death”. EMBO Journal 11 (1992): 3887-3895.
  22. Xiao Q., et al. “Biological drug and drug delivery-mediated immunotherapy”. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B 11 (2021): 941-960.
  23. Chen X., et al. “Epigenetic strategies synergize with PD-L1/PD-1 targeted cancer immunotherapies to enhance antitumor responses”. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B 10 (2020): 723-733.
  24. Chen R., et al. “Phase II study of the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab for relapsed/refractory classic Hodgkin Lymphoma”. Journal of Clinical Oncology 35 (2017): 2125-2132.
  25. Ruf M., et al. “PD-L1 expression is regulated by hypoxia inducible factor in clear cell renal cell carcinoma”. International Journal of Cancer 139 (2016): 396-403.
  26. Shao J W., et al. “In vitro and in vivo anticancer activity evaluation of ursolic acid derivatives”. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 46 (2011): 2652-2661.

Copyright: © 2021 Mehmet Eraslan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is October 20, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US