Acta Scientific Microbiology (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research ArticleVolume 4 Issue 6

Effect of Anthropogenic Activities on the Microbiological Quality of Lobia Creek in Southern Ijaw of Bayelsa State, Nigeria

FV Iyeritei*, O Obire and SI Douglas

Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: FV Iyerite, Department of Microbiology, Rivers State University, Nigeria.

Received: June 21, 2021; Published: July 23, 2021

Citation: FV Iyeritei., et al. “Effect of Anthropogenic Activities on the Microbiological Quality of Lobia Creek in Southern Ijaw of Bayelsa State, Nigeria". Acta Scientific Microbiology 4.8 (2021): 95-103.


The negative impact of human activities on the aquatic environment and biodiversity within the maritime field poses a serious threat on public health. Lobia Creek in Bayelsa State constitutes the main source of rural water supply and is used for various human activities. This study was therefore aimed at determination of the impact of human activities on the microbiological properties of the Creek. Surface water samples were collected from five stations (control, drinking, abattoir, Jetty, and toilet) along the Creek in sterile sample bottles. The samples were transported in an ice packed cooler to the Microbiology laboratory of the Rivers State University for microbiological analyses using standard techniques. The isolated bacteria were also identified after gene amplification and sequencing. The data collected were statistically analyzed using Tukey Kramer statistical tool. Results of microbiological analysis showed that counts of total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 0.36 ± 0.04 ×105 to 1.44 ± 28.28 × 106 CFU/ml, total fungi ranged from 0.7 ± 0.01 × 103 to 2.1 ± 0.42 × 104 CFU/ml, while total Coliform count ranged from 1.8 ± 0.28 × 104 to 7.6 ± 0.28 ×104 CFU/ml feacal Coliform count ranged from 0.7 ± 0.21 × 104 to 3.8 ± 0.57 × 104CFU/ml. Statistical analysis showed significant difference across the stations of the Creek indicating negative impact of human activities. The bacterial isolates molecularly identified included Lysinibacillus macroides, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Shewanella algae. The fungi identified were Penicillium sp, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. The presence of E. coli indicates faecal contamination of the creek water. The presence of Shewanella algae which causes ear, skin and soft tissue infections in the water samples is worrisome. The impact of human activities on Lobia creek therefore poses a serious threat on public health and the immediate environment especially as most of the bacteria and fungi isolated in this study are potential pathogens of microbial infection. The findings in this study should strengthen efforts to ensure strict compliance to policies, personal hygiene and proper waste management practices to avoid outbreak of water-borne disease.

Keyword: Lobia Creek; Microbiological Quality; E. coli; Shewanella algae; Candida albicans


  1. Obire O., et al. “Physicochemical Quality of Elechi Creek in Port Harcourt”. Nigeria Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management 1 (2003): 43-49.
  2. Kumar S., et al. “Manual on irrigation water management” (2011): 104.
  3. Mishra D., et al. “Comparative analysis of the water quality status of the Bassan river in Bayelsa State, Nigeria”. International Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering1 (2009): 59-69.
  4. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. “Millennium development goals report. United Nations Department of Economic and Social” (2009).
  5. Obire O and Aguda M. “Bacterial Community of Leachate from a Waste dump and an Adjacent Stream in Nigeria”. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management2 (2002): 71-75.
  6. Ntiba MJ., et al. “Management Issues in the Lake Victoria Water Shed”. Resolution Management 6 (2001): 211-216.
  7. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO guidelines for drinking water quality (4th ed.). (2010).
  8. Kgalushi R., et al. “People living with HIV/AIDS in a context of rural poverty: the importance of water and sanitation services and hygiene education: A case study from Bolobedu (Limpopo Province, South Africa)”. Johannesburg, South Africa. The Mvula Trust and Delft, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre (2008).
  9. Laurent P. “Household drinking water systems and their impact on people with weakened immunity”. MSF-Holland, Public Health Department (2005).
  10. Chigor VN., et al. “Water quality assessment: Surface water sources used for drinking and irrigation in Zaria, Nigeria are a public health hazard”. Environmental Monitoring Assessment8 (2010): 3389-3400.
  11. Williams A P., et al. “Influence of land use and nutrient flux on metabolic activity of E. coli O157 in river water”. Water Air Soil Pollution3 (2012): 37-83.
  12. Chigor A., et al. “Assessment and heavy metal behaviors of industrial waste water: A case study of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia”. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 3 (2012): 266-277.
  13. Aurecon M. “Water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health: A review for generalists with particular reference to Pakistan”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13 (2011): 1-16.
  14. Adebowale KO., et al. “Impacts of natural and anthropogenic multiple source of pollution on the environmental conditions of Ondo State coastal waters, Nigeria”. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agriculture and Food Chemistry4 (2008): 2797-2881.
  15. Kgabi N and Joseph G. “Determination of the Quality of Water in the Gammams River, Windhoek”. International Journal of Environmental Sciences4 (2012): 299-305.
  16. Afiti H., et al. “The prevalence of TEM and SHV genes among Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli”. African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics1 (2015): 1-7.
  17. Li F., et al. “Spatial risk assessment and sources identification of heavy metals in surface sediments from Dongting Lake, Middle China”. Journal of Geochemical Exploration2 (2007): 75-83.
  18. Maskaoui K and Hu Z. “Contamination and Ecotoxicology risks of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Shantou Coastal Waters, China”. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 2 (2009): 172-178.
  19. Ramesan R and Panda R K. “Groundwater vulnerability assessment, risk mapping, and nitrate evaluation in a small agricultural watershed: Using the DRASTIC model and GIS”. Environmental quality Management4 (2008): 53-75.
  20. ELI HD “Socio- Economic Impacts of River Flooding on Detaic Settlements. A case study of Kolo Creek in Bayelsa State, Nigeria”. Rivers state University of science and technology research Project (2002).
  21. Prescott L M., et al. “Microbiology”. 6th ed. McGraw Hill, London (2005).
  22. Ogbonna D N., et al. “Microbiological Quality and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Microorganisms Associated with Stored Vegetables in Port Harcourt”. Microbiology Research Journal International2 (2019): 1-10.
  23. Okerentugba EU and Ezeronye AO. “Studies on the effect of abattoir and industrial effluents on the heavy metals and microbial quality of Aba River Nigeria”. African Journal of Biotechnology3 (2003): 266-272.
  24. Collins A., et al. “Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the crafts of reading, writing, and mathematics”. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc (1998) (1989): 453-494.
  25. Cheesebrough M. “District Laboratory Practices in Tropical Countries (Second Edition ed.)”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2006).
  26. Holt J G., et al. “Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology” (1994).
  27. Ogbonna DN., et al. “Effect of Port Activities on the Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Surface Water in Warri and Onne Port Terminals, Nigeria”. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International 2 (2021): 46-57.
  28. Ogbonna D N and Azuonwu T C. “Plasmid profile and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria from abattoirs in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria”. International Journal of Pathogen Research2 (2019): 1-11.
  29. Mandri T and Lin J. “Isolation and characterization of engine oil degrading indigenous microorganisms in Kwazulu-Natal”. African Journal of Biotechnology1 (2007): 23-27.
  30. Khan JA and Rizvi SHA. “Isolation and characterization of microorganisms from oil contaminated sites”. Advances in Applied Science Research3 (2011): 455-460.
  31. Saboohi SD., et al. “Molecular Detection of qnrA, qnrB and qnrS Resistance Genes among Salmonella spp. in Iran”. Current Research in Bacteriology 5 (2012): 24-30.
  32. Salem HM., et al. “Heavy metals in drinking water and their environmental impact on human health”. ICEMH; Cairo University, Egypt (2000): 542-556.
  33. Ingraham J L. “March of the unseen microbes: Sighting the unseen”. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (2010): 326.
  34. Rocourt C R B., et al. “The catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase is downstream of atm and feeds forward oxidative stress in the selenium-induced senescence response”. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry5 (2013): 781-787.

Copyright: © 2021 FV Iyeritei., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US