Generate Intracellular Oxidative Stress is an Obligatory Mechanism of RNA Viruses During the Infectious Process
Carlos A Guerrero*
Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Capital District, Colombia
*Corresponding Author: Carlos A Guerrero, Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Capital District, Colombia.
Received: April 09, 2021; Published: May 17, 2021
Viruses, upon contact with the host cell, make conformational changes in their capsid proteins, leading to the emergence of molecular domains needed for binding to cell receptors in order to facilitate penetration of the virus into the cell. Generally, these conformational changes require the participation of molecules with redox capacity in the cell membrane. Once viruses enter, they need to induce conditions of cellular stress, usually oxidative stress, rapidly. This is a necessary condition for the cell to express molecular factors necessary for the viral RNA to be translated into the corresponding proteins that will allow a successful viral infection. In parallel, or as a consequence of the same oxidative process, the virus induces pro-inflammatory pathways such as NF-kB and concomitantly inhibits anti-inflammatory pathways as superoxide dismutase, Nrf2, and PPARγ. Likewise, the viral infection maintains the oxidative condition because it allows the assembly of virions by facilitating the native conformation of their proteins in which the formation of intermolecular disulfide bridges occurs. Under these conditions, the administration of drugs or antioxidant molecules interferes with the virus's oxidative conditions for its entry, replication, and assembly of new virions. In this way, the amount of virions generated per infected cell is drastically reduced, giving the immune system the opportunity to control the infection or reduce its aggressiveness.
Keywords: IRES; NF-κB; ROS; Oxidative Stress; Antioxidants
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