Acta Scientific Microbiology (ASMI) (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 1

Estimation of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in Rice Grain Collected from Different Division of Punjab Pakistan

Muhammad Abdul Rahim1, Waseem Khalid1*, Muhammad Zubair Khalid1, Ravi Prakash Jha2 and Muhammad Modassar Ali Nawaz Ranjha3

1Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Department of Community Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
3Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author: Waseem Khalid, Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Received: November 30, 2020; Published: December 22, 2020



  Aflatoxins are bioactive fungi or specialized metabolite or acutely toxic or cancer-causing substances and substances that alter DNA that are derived from polyketides produced by certain fungi that cause severe contamination in agricultural crops. Fungi are primarily responsible for producing aflatoxins in white rice in the presence of high moisture. Mostly, the rice samples were contaminated with aflatoxins due to unsuitable storage conditions. Furthermore, the food and feed contamination with mycotoxins is a major issue for food safety and for human health. The toxic effects of aflatoxin can cause chronic disease, poor productivity, severe life-threatening toxicity and damage to the immune system. A total of 70 samples of rice were collected from the Capital and different selected divisions of Central, North and South Punjab, Pakistan. The rice is harvested with 18 to 24 percent natural water content and the paddy moisture for storage is dried at 12 to 14 percent. In this study, in Central Punjab (Lahore), the moisture content of 10 samples of rice was 13.47%, in Gujranwala 11 samples were 13.50% and in Sahiwal it was 12.50% respectively. In addition, the thin layer chromatography (TLC) method was used to detect aflatoxin in rice. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 were detected in 32 samples (45.7%). The maximum B2 aflatoxin (32%) was detected in the central Punjab samples. Similarly, B1 (7.5%) and G1 (7.5%) aflatoxins were also detected in the samples of central Punjab. Moreover, 20 samples were collected from south Punjab in which 5 samples were infected with B2 aflatoxin (25%) and 2 samples were detected with G1 aflatoxin (10%) and B1 (5%). Aflatoxin G2 was not detected in all samples. The result was showed that aflatoxin has been assessed more in samples that contain high moisture contents.

Keywords: Aflatoxin; Rice; Moisture Contents; Thin Layer Chromatography



  1. Porter JR., et al. "Food security and food production systems”. Cambridge University Press (2014): 485-533.
  2. Udomkun P., et al. "Innovative technologies to manage aflatoxins in foods and feeds and the profitability of application–A review”. Food Control76 (2017): 127-138.
  3. Agag BI. "Mycotoxins in foods and feeds: 1-aflatoxins”. Assiut University Bulletin for Environmental 1 (2004): 173-205.
  4. Mokuwa A., et al. "Robustness and strategies of adaptation among farmer varieties of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and Asian rice (Oryza sativa) across West Africa”. PLoS One3 (2013): e34801.
  5. Seck PA., et al. "Crops that feed the world 7: Rice”. Food Security1 (2012): 7-24.
  6. Verma DK and Prem PS. "Proximate composition, mineral content and fatty acids analyses of aromatic and non-aromatic Indian rice”. Rice Science1 (2017): 21-31.
  7. Bhullar NK and Wilhelm G. "Nutritional enhancement of rice for human health: the contribution of biotechnology”. Biotechnology Advances1 (2013): 50-57.
  8. Vaghefi N., et al. "Impact of climate change on food security in Malaysia: economic and policy adjustments for rice industry”. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences1 (2016): 19-35.
  9. Ali A and Olaf E. "Assessing farmer use of climate change adaptation practices and impacts on food security and poverty in Pakistan”. Climate Risk Management16 (2017): 183-194.
  10. Wassmann R., et al. "Climate change affecting rice production: the physiological and agronomic basis for possible adaptation strategies”. Advances in Agronomy101 (2009): 59-122.
  11. Chandio AA and Yuansheng JIANG. "Determinants of adoption of improved rice varieties in northern Sindh, Pakistan”. Rice Science2 (2018): 103-110.
  12. Ali N. "Aflatoxins in rice: Worldwide occurrence and public health perspectives”. Toxicology Reports6 (2019): 1188-1197.
  13. Wild CP and Yun YG. "Mycotoxins and human disease: a largely ignored global health issue”. Carcinogenesis1 (2010): 71-82.
  14. Marina Goumenou D., et al “Aflatoxins: Food Sources, Occurrence and Toxicological Effects”. Nova Publications(2014): 191-232.
  15. Elzupir AO Alamer AS and Dutton MF. "The occurrence of aflatoxin in rice worldwide: a review”. Toxin Reviews1 (2015): 37-42.
  16. AACC. Approved Methods of Analyses. 10th Ed. American Association of Cereals Chemists. St. Paul, Minnesota. USA. (2000)
  17. Sherma J and Bernard Fried, eds. Handbook of thin-layer chromatography. CRC press 89 (2003).
  18. Steel RG. Pinciples and procedures of statistics a biometrical approach (No. 519.5 S8) (1997)
  19. Muga FC Marenya MO and Workneh TS. "Effect of temperature, relative humidity and moisture on aflatoxin contamination of stored maize kernels”. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science2 (2019): 271-277.
  20. Zheng XIANZHE and Lan YUBIN. "Effects of drying temperature and moisture content on rice taste quality”. The Proceedings of the 5th Asia-Pacific Drying Conference 2 (2007).
  21. Makky M., et al. "Determination of moisture content in rice using non-destructive short-wave near infrared spectroscopy”. AIP Conference Proceedings 1 (2019).
  22. Ilieva V., et al. "Effect of rice moisture at harvest and rough rice storage time on milling yield and grain breakage”. (2014).
  23. Muhammad Z., et al. "Proximate composition and minerals profile of selected rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties of Pakistan”. Asian Journal of Chemistry1 (2012): 417-421.
  24. Mohd Esa N., et al. "Improving the lipid profile in hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbit by supplementation of germinated brown rice”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry14 (2011): 7985-7991.
  25. Oko AO., et al. "Comparative analysis of the chemical nutrient composition of selected local and newly introduced rice varieties grown in Ebonyi State of Nigeria”. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry2 (2012): 16-23.
  26. Bugang W and Woolsey M. “National Food Safety Standard-Maximum Levels of Contaminants in Foods (GB 2762-2010)”. Global Agricultural Information Network, USDA. Washington DC, (2010): 2-7.
  27. Nisa A Zahra N and Hina S. "Detection of aflatoxins in rice samples”. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research3 (2014): 189-194.
  28. Firdous S et al. "Occurrence of aflatoxins in export-quality Pakistani rice”. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B2 (2012): 121-125.
  29. Morrison D. "The Determination of aflatoxins in paddy and milled fractions of rice in Guyana–Preliminary results”. (2016).
  30. Mukhtar H Farooq Z and Manzoor M. "Determination of aflatoxins in super kernel rice types consumed indifferent regions of Punjab, Pakistan”. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences2 (2016): 542-548.
  31. Sultana N., et al. "Dietary exposure and natural occurrence of total aflatoxins in basmati rice of pakistan”. Journal of Food Protection2 (2017): 331-337.
  32. Waseem K., et al. “Assessment of aflatoxins in wheat flour from different areas of Punjab in Pakistan” International Journal of Biosciences 3 (2020): 230-240.


Citation: Waseem Khalid., et al. “Estimation of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in Rice Grain Collected from Different Division of Punjab Pakistan". Acta Scientific Microbiology 4.1 (2021): 90-95.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US