Muhammad Abdul Rahim1, Waseem Khalid1*, Muhammad Zubair Khalid1, Ravi Prakash Jha2 and Muhammad Modassar Ali Nawaz Ranjha3
1Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Department of Community Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
3Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Waseem Khalid, Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Received: November 30, 2020; Published: December 22, 2020
Aflatoxins are bioactive fungi or specialized metabolite or acutely toxic or cancer-causing substances and substances that alter DNA that are derived from polyketides produced by certain fungi that cause severe contamination in agricultural crops. Fungi are primarily responsible for producing aflatoxins in white rice in the presence of high moisture. Mostly, the rice samples were contaminated with aflatoxins due to unsuitable storage conditions. Furthermore, the food and feed contamination with mycotoxins is a major issue for food safety and for human health. The toxic effects of aflatoxin can cause chronic disease, poor productivity, severe life-threatening toxicity and damage to the immune system. A total of 70 samples of rice were collected from the Capital and different selected divisions of Central, North and South Punjab, Pakistan. The rice is harvested with 18 to 24 percent natural water content and the paddy moisture for storage is dried at 12 to 14 percent. In this study, in Central Punjab (Lahore), the moisture content of 10 samples of rice was 13.47%, in Gujranwala 11 samples were 13.50% and in Sahiwal it was 12.50% respectively. In addition, the thin layer chromatography (TLC) method was used to detect aflatoxin in rice. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 were detected in 32 samples (45.7%). The maximum B2 aflatoxin (32%) was detected in the central Punjab samples. Similarly, B1 (7.5%) and G1 (7.5%) aflatoxins were also detected in the samples of central Punjab. Moreover, 20 samples were collected from south Punjab in which 5 samples were infected with B2 aflatoxin (25%) and 2 samples were detected with G1 aflatoxin (10%) and B1 (5%). Aflatoxin G2 was not detected in all samples. The result was showed that aflatoxin has been assessed more in samples that contain high moisture contents.
Keywords: Aflatoxin; Rice; Moisture Contents; Thin Layer Chromatography
Citation: Waseem Khalid., et al. “Estimation of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in Rice Grain Collected from Different Division of Punjab Pakistan". Acta Scientific Microbiology 4.1 (2021): 90-95.
Copyright: © 2021 Waseem Khalid., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.