Acta Scientific Microbiology (ASMI) (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 4 Issue 1

Covid-19 Pandemic, Significance of Reimagining Immunity and Relevance of Medicinal Plants to Combat SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Perspective

Thounaojam Salvia1,2 and Laishram Shantikumar Singh3*

1Sikkim Professional University, Sikkim, India
2Department of Microbiology, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Sikkim, India
3Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD) Sikkim Centre, Sikkim, India

*Corresponding Author: Laishram Shantikumar Singh, Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD) Sikkim Centre, Sikkim, India.

Received: October 06, 2020; Published: December 09, 2020



  The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2, emerges as a pandemic is potentially a lethal disease which cause immense concern globally. The pandemic has generated mayhem throughout the worldwide due to insufficient threat evaluation. The present COVID-19 scenario has come into a precarious stage. SARS-CoV-2 has spread fast compared to other viruses including SARS due to increased globalization as well as pioneer adaptability in every environment. Due to this many agencies, researchers, health care workers are being engaged in different ways to tackle and mitigate the burden before it goes out of hand. Here we have highlighted some aspects of the virus and the disease symptoms of COVID-19. The importance of healthy immune system and reimagining the concept of immunity and the role of medicinal herbs in boosting individual immunity have also been discussed. The significance of Indian traditional medicinal practice in tackling diseases, the antiviral properties of medicinal plants and their relevance to SARS-CoV-2 have been point out. We have also highlighted the potential and the possible benefits the antiviral medicinal plants might have against SARS-CoV-2.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Immunity and Immune Booster; Medicinal Plants



  1. Gorbalenya AE. “Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus–the species and its viruses, a statement of the coronavirus study group”. BioRxiv (2020).
  2. Gomathi M., et al. “Drug studies on Rett syndrome: from bench to bedside”. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (2020): 1-25.
  3. Gorbalenya AE., et al. “The species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2”. Nature Microbiology 5 (2020): 536-544.
  4. Schoeman D and Fielding BC. “Coronavirus envelope protein: current knowledge”. Virology Journal 16 (2019): 69.
  5. Lu R., et al. “Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding”. Lancet 395 (2020): 565-574.
  6. Chan JFW., et al. “Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan”. Emerging Microbes and Infection 9 (2020a): 221-236.
  7. Jiang S., et al. “A distinct name is needed for the new coronavirus”. Lancet 395 (2020): 949.
  8. Guarner J. “Three emerging coronaviruses in two decades the story of SARS, MERS, and now COVID-19”. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 153 (2002): 420-421.
  9. Chan JFW., et al. “Improved molecular diagnosis of COVID-19 by the novel, highly sensitive and specific COVID-19-RdRp/Hel real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay validated in vitro and with clinical specimens”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2020b).
  10. Huang C., et al. “Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China”. Lancet 395 (2020): 497-506.
  11. Heymann DL and Shindo N. “COVID-19: what is next for public health?”. Lancet 395 (2020): 542-545.
  12. Fehr AR and Perlman S. “Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis”. Methods in Molecular Biology 1282 (2015): 1-23.
  13. Zhang L., et al. “Crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 main protease provides a basis for design of improved α-ketoamide inhibitors”. Science (2020): eabb3405.
  14. Glass WG., et al. “Mechanisms of host defense following severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) pulmonary infection of mice”. Journal of Immunology 173 (2004): 4030-4039.
  15. Matsuda K., et al. “The vagus nerve is one route of transneural invasion for intranasally inoculated influenza a virus in mice”. Veterinary Pathology 41 (2004): 101-107.
  16. Zhou X., et al. “Cordyceps fungi: natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products”. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 61 (2009): 279-291.
  17. Winkler D. “Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) Production and Sustainability on the Tibetan Plateau and in the Himalayas”. Asian Medicine 5 (2009): 291-316.
  18. Kim HG., et al. “Cordycepin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by the suppression of NF-kappaB through Akt and p38 inhibition in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells”. European Journal of Pharmacology 545 (2006): 192-199.
  19. Chen PX., et al. “Properties of Cordyceps sinensis: A review”. Journal of Functional Foods 5 (2013): 550-569.
  20. Da-Costa-Rocha I., et al. “Hibiscus sabdariffa L.–A phytochemical and pharmacological review”. Food Chemistry 165 (2014): 424-443.
  21. Yelithao K., et al. “Studies on structural properties and immune-enhancing activities of glycomannans from Schizophyllum commune”. Carbohydrate Polymers 218 (2019): 37-45.
  22. Choi J H., et al. “Immunostimulatory activity of isoflavone-glycosides and ethanol extract from a fermented soybean product in human primary immune cells”. Journal of Medicinal Food 10 (2014): 1113-1121.
  23. Chan Y S., et al. “Cytokine-inducing hemagglutinin from small taros”. Protein and Peptide Letters 17 (2010): 823-830.
  24. Paterson RRM. “Cordyceps - A traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory?”. Phytochemistry 69 (2008): 1469-1495.
  25. Kuo YC., et al. “Cordyceps sinensis as an immunomodulatory agent”. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 24 (1996): 111-125.
  26. Scott and Barry. “Immune responses to viruses”. Clinical Immunology, 3rd Mosby (2008): 421-431.
  27. Ravishankar B and Shukla V. “Indian systems of medicine: a brief profile”. African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine 4 (2007): 319-337.
  28. Yuan H., et al. “The traditional medicine and modern medicine from natural products”. Molecules 21 (2016): 559.
  29. Parasuraman S., et al., “Polyherbal formulation: concept of ayurveda”. Pharmacognosy Review 16 (2014): 73-80.
  30. Li-Weber M., “New therapeutic aspects of flavones: the anticancer properties of Scutellaria and its main active constituents Wogonin, Baicalein and Baicalin”. Cancer Treatment Review 35 (2009): 57-68.
  31. Fabricant DS and Farnsworth NR. “The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery”. Environmental Health Perspectives 109 (2001): 69-75.
  32. Moghadamtousi SZ., et al. “Potential antiviral agents from marine fungi: an overview”. Marine Drugs 13 (2015): 4520-4538.
  33. Gurib-Fakim A. “Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow”. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 27 (2006): 1-93.
  34. Pereira PR., et al. “Tarin, a Potential Immunomodulator and COX-Inhibitor Lectin found in Taro (Colocasia esculenta)”. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety4 (2018): 878-891.
  35. Pereira PR., et al. “Structural analysis and binding properties of isoforms of tarin, the GNA-related lectin from Colocasia esculenta”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Proteins and Proteomics 1 (2015): 20-30.
  36. Chaitra NL., et al. “A screening strategy for selection of anti-HIV-1 integrase and anti-HIV-1 protease inhibitors from extracts of Indian medicinal plants”. International Journal of Phytomedicine 3 (2011): 312-318.
  37. Salehi B., et al. “Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus”. International Journal of Molecular Science 19 (2018): 1459.
  38. Pandjaitan M., et al. “Bromelain enzyme in fresh pineapple juice as a healing pathway for HIV/AIDS”. Advance Science, Engineering and Medicine 6 (2014): 119-123.

39.               Pandjaitan M., et al. “Bromelain Enzyme from Pineapple Fruit as an Antiviral Agent Against HIV, Hepatitis C and Human Papilloma Virus”. Journal of Engineering and Applied Science 3 (2018): 3125-3130.

  1. Hassan STS., et al. “Hibiscus sabdariffa and its Bioactive Constituents Exhibit Antiviral Activity against HSV-2 and Anti-Enzymatic Properties against Urease by an ESI-MS Based Assay”. Molecules 22.5 (2017): 722.
  2. Joshi SS., et al. “Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces Decrease Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus Surrogate Titers”. Food and Environmental Virology 4 (2005): 366-373.
  3. Lau KM., et al. “Immunomodulatory and anti-SARS activities of Houttuynia cordata”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology118 (2008): 79-85.
  4. Kumar M., et al. “A current update on the phytopharmacological aspects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb”. Pharmacognosy Reviews 15 (2014): 22.
  5. Leardkamolkarn V., et al. “The inhibitory actions of Houttuynia cordataaqueous extract on dengue virus and dengue‐infected cells”. Journal Food Biochemistry (2011).
  6. Chou SC., et al. “The constituents and their bioactivities of Houttuynia cordata”. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin11 (2009): 1227-1230.
  7. Choi HJ., et al. “Inhibitory effects of quercetin 3-rhamnoside on influenza A virus replication”. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Science3-4 (2009): 329-333. 
  8. ZhangY B., et al. “Phenolic compounds from the flowers of Bombax malabaricum and their antioxidant and antiviral activities”. Molecules 11 (2015): 19947-19957.
  9. Pongthanapisith V., et al. “Antiviral Protein of Momordica charantia L. Inhibits Different Subtypes of Influenza A”. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2013): 1-6.
  10. Bourinbaiar AS and Lee-Huang S. “The Activity of Plant-Derived Antiretroviral Proteins MAP30 and GAP31 against Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in vitro”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications3 (1996): 923-929.
  11. Oyuntsetseg N., et al. “Evaluation of direct antiviral activity of the Deva-5 herb formulation and extracts of five Asian plants against influenza A virus H3N8”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 14 (2014): 235.
  12. Ye Y and Li B. “1′ S-1′-acetoxychavicol acetate isolated from Alpinia galanga inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by blocking Rev transport”. Journal of General Virology7 (2006): 2047-2053.
  13. Watanabe K., et al. “Anti-influenza viral effects of novel nuclear export inhibitors from Valerianae radix and Alpinia galangal”. Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 1 (2011): 26-31.
  14. Habibzadeh P and Stoneman EK. “The novel coronavirus: a bird’s eye view”. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 11 (2020): 65.
  15. Wu Z and McGoogan JM. “Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention”. Journal of the American Medical Association (2020).
  16. Chen H., et al. “Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records”. Lancet 395 (2020): 809-815.
  17. World Health Organization (WHO). “Surveillance case definitions for human infection with novel coronavirus (nCoV)” (2020).


Citation: Thounaojam Salvia and Laishram Shantikumar Singh. “Covid-19 Pandemic, Significance of Reimagining Immunity and Relevance of Medicinal Plants to Combat SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Perspective". Acta Scientific Microbiology 4.1 (2021): 33-41.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US