Acta Scientific Microbiology (ASMI) (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 3 Issue 11

Evaluate the Effects of Aflatoxins on Agriculture Foods and the Role of Bio-detoxification

Waseem Khalid1*, Ayesha Jabeen1, Muhammad Rehan2, Afifa Aziz1, Anam Tariq1, Chasheen Fizza1, Syed Ali Ur Rehman Siddiqui2 and Muhammad Abdul Rahim1

1Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Institute of Agricultural Sciences, The Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author: Waseem Khalid, Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Received: October 28, 2020; Published: November 25, 2020



  Food security is necessary for the purpose of human welfare, for this purpose food safety is applied that provides protection against contamination. Agricultural food plays a vital role in human nutrition which is affected due to aflatoxins. The secondary metabolized called aflatoxins are derived from Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus, these metabolize grow on moist foods and responsible for food spoilage. When humans consumed aflatoxins present food that creates various substances like carcinogenic. For the prevention of aflatoxins in foodstuff, detoxification of aflatoxins is used which can limit toxic substances to an acceptable level in various commodities. The bio-detoxification are specific, efficient and environment friendly in eliminating the possible contamination of aflatoxins in foods.

Keywords: Aflatoxins; Carcinogenic; Cereal; Bio-detoxification



  1. Udomkun P., et al. “Innovative technologies to manage aflatoxins in foods and feeds and the profitability of application–A review”. Food Control 76 (2017): 127-138.
  2. Riba A., et al. “Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in Algerian wheat and derived products”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 10 (2010): 2772-2777.
  3. Kara GN., et al. “Co-occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in cereal flours commercialised in Turkey”. Food Control 54 (2015): 275-281.
  4. Wacoo AP., et al. “Methods for detection of aflatoxins in agricultural food crops”. Journal Applied Chemistry (2014): 706291.
  5. Dors GC., et al. “Aflatoxins: contamination, analysis and control”. Embrapa Suínos e Aves-Capítulo em livro científico (ALICE) (2011).
  6. Catanante G., et al. “An overview of recent electrochemical immunosensing strategies for mycotoxins detection”. Electroanalysis8 (2016): 1750-1763.
  7. Hussein HS., et al. “Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals”. Toxicology2 (2001): 101-134.
  8. Womack ED., et al. “A recent review of non‐biological remediation of aflatoxin‐contaminated crops”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 4 (2014): 1706-1714.
  9. Stroka J and Anklam E. “New strategies for the screening and determination of aflatoxins and the detection of aflatoxin-producing moulds in food and feed”. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 21.2 (2002): 90-95.
  10. Asghar MA., et al. “Occurrence of aflatoxins contamination in brown rice from Pakistan”. Iranian journal of Public Health 3 (2014): 291.
  11. Iqbal SZ., et al. “Detection of aflatoxins and zearalenone contamination in wheat derived products”. Food Control 1 (2014): 223-226.
  12. Beizaei A., et al. “Highly sensitive toxin microarray assay for aflatoxin B1 detection in cereals”. Food Control 57 (2015): 210-215.
  13. Liu Z., et al. “Aflatoxins in stored maize and rice grains in Liaoning Province, China”. Journal of stored Products Research 4 (2006): 468-479.
  14. Prietto L., et al. “Post-harvest operations and aflatoxin levels in rice (Oryza sativa)”. Crop Protection 78 (2015): 172-177.
  15. Rustom IY. “Aflatoxin in food and feed: occurrence, legislation and inactivation by physical methods”. Food Chemistry 1 (1997): 57-67.
  16. Shanakht H., et al. “Characterization of Fungal Microbiota on Rice Grains From Local Markets of Lahore”. Journal of Hygienic Engineering and Design 9 (2014): 35-40.
  17. Bryden WL. “Mycotoxins in the food chain: human health implications”. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16.S1 (2007): 95-101.
  18. Matumba L., et al. “Fungal metabolites diversity in maize and associated human dietary exposures relate to micro-climatic patterns in Malawi”.World Mycotoxin Journal 3 (2014): 269-282.
  19. Lutfullah G and A Hussain. “Studies on contamination level of aflatoxins in some cereals and beans of Pakistan”. Food Control 1 (2012): 32-36.
  20. Creppy EE. “Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe”. Toxicology letters 1 (2002): 19-28.
  21. Prettl Z., et al. “Biological degradation of aflatoxin B 1 by a Rhodococcus pyridinivorans strain in by-product of bioethanol”. Animal Feed Science and Technology 224 (2017): 104-114.
  22. Adebo OA., et al. “Aflatoxin B 1 degradation by liquid cultures and lysates of three bacterial strains”. International Journal of Food Microbiology 233 (2016): 11-19.
  23. Ramesh J., et al. “Survey of market samples of food grains and grain flour for Aflatoxin B1 contamination”. International Journal Current Microbiological Applied Sciences 5 (2013): 184-188.
  24. Sabino M., et al”.Variations in the levels of aflatoxin in cows milk consumed in the city of São Paulo, Brazil”. Food Additives and Contaminants 3 (1989): 321-326.
  25. McKevith Brigid. "Nutritional aspects of cereals”. Nutrition Bulletin2 (2004): 111-142.
  26. Zhang H and B Wang. “Fate of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside during wheat milling and Chinese steamed bread processing”. Food Control 44 (2014): 86-91.
  27. Elzupir Amin O., et al. “The occurrence of aflatoxin in rice worldwide: a review". Toxin Reviews1 (2015): 37-42.
  28. Mazaheri M. “Determination of aflatoxins in imported rice to Iran”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 8 (2009): 2064-2066.
  29. Iqbal SZ., et al. “The presence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in rice and rice products; and evaluation of dietary intake”. Food Chemistry 210 (2016): 135-140.
  30. Khalid W., et al. “Assessment of aflatoxins in wheat flour from different areas of Punjab in Pakistan”. International Journal of Biosciences 3 (2020): 230-240.
  31. Razdari HB., et al. “An Assessment of Aflatoxin Levels in Wheat Samples of 5 top Provinces of Iran” (2014).
  32. Bandyopadhyay Ranajit., et al. "Biological control of aflatoxins in Africa: current status and potential challenges in the face of climate change”. World Mycotoxin Journal5 (2016): 771-789.
  33. Liu Yan and Felicia Wu. "Global burden of aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma: a risk assessment”. Environmental Health Perspectives6 (2010): 818-824.
  34. Wu Fang. "Global impacts of aflatoxin in maize: trade and human health”. World Mycotoxin Journal2 (2015): 137-142.
  35. Machida M andGomi K. “Aspergillus: molecular biology and genomics”. Horizon Scientific Press (2010).
  36. Marpaung, David Septian Sumanto., et al. "Determination of Aflatoxin Contamination Risk along Maize Distribution Chain (Case study: A Maize Enterprise in East Lampung)”. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 1 (2020).
  37. Kamika I and M Tekere. “Occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in maize throughout the supply chain in the Democratic Republic of Congo”. Food Control 69 (2016): 292-296.
  38. Phillips TD., et al. "Reducing human exposure to aflatoxin through the use of clay: a review”. Food Additives and Contaminants2 (2008): 134-145.
  39. Yunus Agha W., et al. “Aflatoxin B1 in affecting broiler’s performance, immunity, and gastrointestinal tract: A review of history and contemporary issues”. Toxins6 (2011): 566-590.
  40. Benkerroum Noreddine. "Chronic and acute toxicities of aflatoxins: mechanisms of action”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health2 (2020): 423.
  41. Ali SW and S Afzaal. “Aflatoxins in Pakistani Foods: A Serious Threat to Food Safety”. Journal of Hygienic Engineering and Design 9 (2014): 20-25.
  42. Massey TE., et al. “Biochemical and molecular aspects of mammalian susceptibility to aflatoxin B1 carcinogenicity”. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 3 (1995): 213-227.
  43. Van Rensburg S., et al.Hepatocellular carcinoma and dietary aflatoxin in Mozambique and Transkei”. British Journal of Cancer 5 (1985): 713-726.
  44. Mishra H and C Das. “A review on biological control and metabolism of aflatoxin” (2013).
  45. Lemmens Marc., et al. "The effect of inoculation treatment and long-term application of moisture on Fusarium head blight symptoms and deoxynivalenol contamination in wheat grains”. European Journal of Plant Pathology3 (2004): 299-308.
  46. Aliabadi MA., et al. “Biological control of aflatoxins”. European Journal of Experimental Biology 3.2 (2013): 162-166.
  47. Velazhahan R. et al. “Detoxification of aflatoxins by seed extracts of the medicinal plant, Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague ex Turrill–structural analysis and biological toxicity of degradation product of aflatoxin G1”. Food Control 5 (2010): 719-725.
  48. Jalili M and S Jinap. “Role of sodium hydrosulphite and pressure on the reduction of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in black pepper”. Food Control 1 (2012): 11-15.
  49. Anthony Makun Hussaini., et al. "Aflatoxin contamination in foods and feeds: A special focus on Africa”. Trends in Vital Food and Control Engineering187 (2012).
  50. Karlovsky Petr., et al. "Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination”. Mycotoxin research4 (2016): 179-205.
  51. Wu Qinghua., et al. "Biological degradation of aflatoxins”. Drug Metabolism Reviews1 (2009): 1-7.


Citation: Waseem Khalid., et al. “Evaluate the Effects of Aflatoxins on Agriculture Foods and the Role of Bio-detoxification". Acta Scientific Microbiology 3.12 (2020): 101-108.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US