Assistant Professor (Former), Shiva Group of Institutions Bilaspur, HP, India
*Corresponding Author: Anju Kaushal, Assistant Professor (Former), Shiva Group of Institutions Bilaspur, HP, India.
Received: August 03, 2020; Published: August 26, 2020
Current pandemic with COVID-19 disease is caused by a novel coronavirus SARSCoV-2, which started from Dec 2019 and still continues. The infection is mainly started by inhalation of virus contaminated droplets. Immune response is produced by both adaptive and innate immunity. Pathogenic stages of virus in the host are asymptomatic stage, non-severe symptomatic and severe- symptomatic stage. Major- Histocompatibility Antigens/HLA classes regulate the adaptive immune response and pathogenesis. In asymptomatic stage the person is recovered normally. However, the innate immune response is impaired in the severe symptomatic stages with high lymphopenia in natural killer cells, but other macrophages and monocytes increased fighting the virus; hence they establish a hyperinflammatory state. Immunological regular functions are precluded mainly due to impaired immune response, because virus lapse the protective immunity by NK cells while favoring its propagation causing inflammations in lungs and other organs such as kidney, liver, spleen etc., could be fatal in later stages.
ACE-2 receptors on alveolar cells with proteaseTMPRSS2 allow the spike of virus to make them attach to the cells for easy virus entry. Monocytes and Macrophages produce cytokines can create “Cytokine storm”, a hyper inflammation in lungs. Cytokine storm is a current hallmark of SARSCoV-2 pathogenesis, is triggered by releasing cytokines GSCF, IP10, MIP1A, IL-2, IL-7 and TNF to cause breathing problem, ARDS, and lungs failure subsequently with acute cardiac injury.
Evidence based medicines integrate the clinical experience and patient values with the accurate information available to provide best treatment for faster patient recovery.
Keywords: COVID-19; SARSCoV-2; ACE-2; ARDS; Immune Response; Cytokines
Citation: Anju Kaushal. “Immune Response and Pathogenesis of COVID-19 and The Strategies for Developing Target Drugs". Acta Scientific Microbiology 3.9 (2020): 92-102.
Copyright: © 2020 Anju Kaushal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.