Acta Scientific Microbiology (ASMI) (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Review Article Volume 3 Issue 8

Novel Corona Virus COVID-19: An Overview

Rohini Agrawal, Prashant Amale, Shilpa A Deshpande*, Priti Bhoyar, Kiran Gomkale and Sunchuwar

Priyadarshini J. L. Chaturvedi College of Pharmacy, Electronic Zone Building, MIDC, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

*Corresponding Author: Shilpa A Deshpande, Priyadarshini J. L. Chaturvedi College of Pharmacy, Electronic Zone Building, MIDC, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Received: May 26, 2020; Published: July 30, 2020

×

Abstract

 Corona Virus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19), was proclaimed as a pandemic emergency by World Health Organisation (WHO) in March 2020. The main causative factor behind the pneumonic viral infection is Severe Acute Respiratoty Syndrome Coronavirus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which holds the 75 - 80% nucleotide sequence similarity with SARS-CoV. Infected and asymptomatic individual are the primary source of human to human transmission due to it become a pandemic, the women with third trimester is also susceptible to this respiratory and pneumonic infection. The time period for the infection is 14 days and the average duration is of 20 days. The infection is clinically manifested mainly by fever, shortness of breath, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) etc. Various diagnostic approaches such as Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) by using RT-PCR, serological testing etc had been used among which RT-PCR found to be successful in the detection of strain of SARS-CoV-2. Present review focus on the genomic structure of SARS-CoV-2, mechanism, transmission, entry into the host cell, diagnosis, and prevention of the Covid-19. This may be helpful for the development of therapeutic agents used for prophylaxis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2.

Keywords: Covid-19; Corona Virus; WHO; SARS-CoV-2; RT-PCR

×

References

  1. Wu Joseph T., et al. “Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study”. Lancet (London, England)10225 (2020): 689-697.
  2. Chen Nanshan., et al. “Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study”. The Lancet10223 (2020): 507-513.
  3. Liu Kui., et al. “Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province”. Chinese Medical Journal (2020).
  4. Woo Patrick CY., et al. “Coronavirus genomics and bioinformatics analysis”. Viruses8 (2010): 1804-1820.
  5. Gorbalenya Alexander E. "Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus–The species and its viruses, a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group”. BioRxiv (2020).
  6. Chan Jasper Fuk-Woo., et al. “Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan”. Emerging microbes and Infections1 (2020): 221-236.
  7. Bárcena Montserrat., et al. “Cryo-electron tomography of mouse hepatitis virus: insights into the structure of the coronavirion”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences2 (2009): 582-587.
  8. Neuman Benjamin W., et al. “Supramolecular architecture of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus revealed by electron cryomicroscopy”. Journal of Virology16 (2006): 7918-7928.
  9. Cui Jie., et al. “Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses”. Nature Reviews3 (2019): 181-192.
  10. Song Zhiqi., et al. “From SARS to MERS, thrusting coronaviruses into the spotlight”. Viruses 1 (2019): 59.
  11. Wu Fan., et al. “A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China”. Nature 7798 (2020): 265-269.
  12. Masters Paul S. "The molecular biology of coronaviruses”. Advances in Virus Research 66 (2006): 193-292.
  13. deHaan Cornelis AM., et al. “Coronavirus particle assembly: primary structure requirements of the membrane protein”. Journal of Virology8 (1998): 6838-6850.
  14. Fehr Anthony R and Stanley Perlman. "Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis”. Humana Press, New York, NY (2015): 1-23.
  15. Bosch Berend Jan., et al. “The coronavirus spike protein is a class I virus fusion protein: structural and functional characterization of the fusion core complex”. Journal of Virology16 (2003): 8801-8811.
  16. Xia Shuai., et al. “Fusion mechanism of 2019-nCoV and fusion inhibitors targeting HR1 domain in spike protein”. Cellular and Molecular Immunology (2020): 1-3.
  17. Yu Fei., et al. “Measures for diagnosing and treating infections by a novel coronavirus responsible for a pneumonia outbreak originating in Wuhan, China”. Microbes and Infection (2020).
  18. Zumla Alimuddin., et al. “Coronaviruses—drug discovery and therapeutic options”. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 5 (2016): 327.
  19. Coutard Bruno., et al. “The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade”. Antiviral Research 176 (2020): 104742.
  20. Siu YL., et al. “The M, E, and N structural proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus are required for efficient assembly, trafficking, and release of virus-like particles”. Journal of Virology22 (2008): 11318-11330.
  21. Chang Chung-ke., et al. “Modular organization of SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein”. Journal of Biomedical Science 1 (2006): 59-72.
  22. Hurst Kelley R., et al. “Identification of in vivo-interacting domains of the murine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein”. Journal of Virology14 (2009).
  23. Klausegger Alfred., et al. “Identification of a coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase with a substrate specificity different from those of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus”. Journal of Virology5 (1999): 3737-3743.
  24. Tipnis Sarah R., et al. “A human homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme cloning and functional expression as a captopril-insensitive carboxypeptidase”. Journal of Biological Chemistry43 (2000): 33238-33243.
  25. Kuba Keiji., et al. “A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus–induced lung injury”. Nature Medicine8 (2005): 875-879.
  26. Paizis Georgina., et al. “Chronic liver injury in rats and humans upregulates the novel enzyme angiotensin converting enzyme 2”. Gut 12 (2005): 1790-1796.
  27. Lambert Daniel W., et al. “Not just angiotensinases: new roles for the angiotensin-converting enzymes”. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS1 (2010): 89-98.
  28. Angeletti Silvia., et al. “COVID‐2019: the role of the nsp2 and nsp3 in its pathogenesis”. Journal of Medical Virology (2020).
  29. Tortorici M Alejandra and David Veesler. “Structural insights into coronavirus entry”. Advances in Virus Research 105 (2019): 93-116.
  30. de Wilde Adriaan H., et al. “Host factors in coronavirus replication”. Roles of Host Gene and Non-coding RNA Expression in Virus Infection. Springer, Cham, (2017): 1-42.
  31. Li Guangdi and Erik De Clercq. "Therapeutic options for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)”. Nature (2020): 149-150.
  32. Shi Chong-Shan., et al. “SARS-Coronavirus Open Reading Frame-8b triggers intracellular stress pathways and activates NLRP3 inflammasomes”. Cell Death Discovery1 (2019): 1-12.
  33. Nieto-Torres Jose L., et al. “Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus E protein transports calcium ions and activates the NLRP3 inflammasome”. Virology 485 (2015): 330-339.
  34. Vellingiri Balachandar., et al. “COVID-19: A promising cure for the global panic”. Science of the Total Environment (2020): 138277.
  35. Baranov Pavel V., et al. “Programmed ribosomal frameshifting in decoding the SARS-CoV genome”. Virology 2 (2005): 498-510.
  36. Hussain Snawar., et al. “Identification of novel subgenomic RNAs and noncanonical transcription initiation signals of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus”. Journal of Virology9 (2005): 5288-5295.
  37. Brian DA and RS Baric. "Coronavirus genome structure and replication”. Coronavirus replication and reverse genetics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2005): 1-30.
  38. Guo Yan-Rong., et al. “The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak–an update on the status”. Military Medical Research1 (2020): 1-10.
  39. Covid CDC., et al. “Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children—United States, February 12–April 2, 2020”. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report14 (2020): 422.
  40. COVID, CDC How. Spreads: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); 2020 (2020).
  41. vanDoremalen Neeltje., et al. “Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1”. New England Journal of Medicine16 (2020): 1564-1567.
  42. World Health Organization. Laboratory testing for coronavirus disease (‎COVID-19)‎ in suspected human cases: interim guidance, 19 March 2020. No. WHO/COVID-19/laboratory/2020.5. World Health Organization (2020).
  43. Freeman WM., et al. “Quantitative RT-PCR: pitfalls and potential”. BioTechniques 1 (1999): 112-22, 124-125.
  44. Bustin Stephen A., et al. “The MIQE Guidelines: Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments”. Clinical Chemistry (2009): 611-622.
  45. Ai Tao., et al. “Correlation of chest CT and RT-PCR testing in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: a report of 1014 cases”. Radiology (2020): 200642.
  46. Salehi Sana., et al. “Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review of imaging findings in 919 patients”. American Journal of Roentgenology (2020): 1-7.
  47. National Health Commission of People’s Republic of China. Guidelines for public protection against novel coronavirus infection.
×

Citation

Citation: Shilpa A Deshpande., et al. “Novel Corona Virus COVID-19: An Overview". Acta Scientific Microbiology 3.8 (2020): 112-116.



Indexed In






News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is December 15, 2020.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US