Acta Scientific Microbiology (ASMI) (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 3 Issue 6

Determinants of Pre-Anemia among Healthy University Students

Muamar MA Shaheen1* and Islam Hassouneh2

1Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Hebron University, Hebron, Palestine
2Faculty of Administrative Sciences and Informatics, Palestine Polytechnic University (PPU), Hebron, Palestine

*Corresponding Author: Muamar MA Shaheen, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hebron University, Hebron, Palestine.

Received: April 04, 2020; Published: May 28, 2020



Background: Hemoglobin levels might not predict pre-anemic states neither do they predict signs and symptoms of iron deficiency in healthy people.

Poor dietary habits along with other risk factors might predict risk of developing anemia.

Aims: We aim at determining the risk factors associated with prediction of pre-anemia and the level of awareness of anemia among students.

Methods: This is a cross- sectional study where capillary blood samples were collected from a random sample of 200 healthy university students on campus during February 2018. Hematocrit and hemoglobin values were determined for all students. A previously validated questionnaire was distributed on participants to collect social, health and dietary data.

Results: The prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia among students was 22%. It was shown that students dietary habits had a moderate effect on Iron Deficiency Anemia, arithmetic mean ± SD was (2.97 ± 0.54). There was 1.3 - 2.1 folds increase in risk of Iron Deficiency Anemia for students with poor dietary habits. Almost 57% of students who have low hemoglobin levels have normal Body Mass Index (BMI). On the other hand, 22.7% of students who have low hemoglobin levels were either overweight or obese. There was a significance difference in anemia prevalence (α = 0.002) between underweight and overweight groups. The level of awareness of major aspects of anemia ranged from moderate to high, mean ± SD (2.44 ± 1.35) to (3.88 ± 1.14).

Conclusion: Overweight, poor dietary habits as related to iron intake and low level of awareness of anemia were associated with high prevalence of pre-and/or anemic states. Whether eating disorder lead to anemia or anemia lead to eating behavior disorder, need to be investigated.

Keywords: Hemoglobin Level; Iron-Deficiency Anemia; Iron-Rich Diet; Eating Behavior



  1. Wiwantkit V. “Tropical Anemia”. Nova Science Publishers Inc (2008).
  2. Allison R. “Everything you need to know about anemia”. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc (2002).
  3. How is iron deficiency diagnosed (2018).
  4. Janz TG., et al. “Anemia in the Emergency Department: Evaluation and Treatment”. Emergency Medicine Practice11 (2013): 1-15.
  5. Stevens GA., et al. “Global, regional, and national trends in hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995-2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data”. Lancet Glob Health1 (2013): e16-e25.
  6. Balarajan Y., et al. “Anemia in low-income and middle-income countries”. The Lancet9809 (2011): 2123-2135.
  7. Shaw G and Friedman J. “Iron Deficiency Anemia: Focus on Infectious Diseases in Lesser Developed Countries”. Anemia (2011): 1-10.
  8. Rani NA., et al. “Prevalence of Nutritional Deficiency Anemia and Its Impact on Scholastic Performance among Undergraduate Medical Students”. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 3 (2017): BC21-BC23.
  9. Cavendish Marshall. “Disease and disorder”. (2008).
  10. Cotter and Susan M. “Hematology”. CRC Press Book (2001).
  11. Sachdeva A. “Practical Pediatric Hematology”. (2012).
  12. Mikki N., et al. “Anaemia prevalence and associated sociodemographic and dietary factors among Palestinian adolescents in the West Bank”. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 3 (‎2011)‎: 208-217.
  13. Sirdah M., et al. “Iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of Gaza Strip, Palestine”. Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia 2 (2014): 132-138.
  14. Hashizume M., et al. “Anaemia in relation to low bioavailability of dietary iron among school-aged children in the Aral Sea region, Kazakhstan”. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 1 (2004): 37-43.
  15. Abalkhail B and Shawky S. “Prevalence of daily breakfast intake, iron deficiency anaemia and awareness of being anemic among Saudi school students”. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 6 (2002): 519-528.
  16. Asobayire F., et al. “Prevalence of iron deficiency with and without concurrent anemia in population groups with high prevalence of malaria and other infections”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6 (2001): 776-782.
  17. Schaefer R and Huch R. “Iron deficiency and Iron deficiency anemia”. (2006).
  18. Habib MA., et al. “Prevalence and Predictors of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan, A Secondary Analysis of National Nutrition Survey Data 2011-2012”. PLoS ONE5 (2016): e0155051.
  19. Özdemir N. “Iron deficiency anemia from diagnosis to treatment in children”. Turkish Archives of Pediatrics 1 (2015): 11-19.
  20. Al-Sayes F., et al. “Prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among females at university stage”. Journal of Medical Laboratory and Diagnosis 1 (2011): 5-11.
  21. Steensma D., et al. “Hereditary Red Blood Cell Disorders in Middle Eastern Patients”. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 76 (2001): 285-293.
  22. Shill KB., et al. “Prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia among university students in Noakhali region, Bangladesh”. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 1 (2014):103-110.
  23. Bagni UV., et al. “Overweight is associated with low hemoglobin levels in adolescent girls”. Obesity Research and Clinical Practice 3 (2013): e218-e229.
  24. Shams S., et al. “The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in female medical students in Tehran”. Singapore Medical Journal 2 (2010): 116-119.
  25. Jain M and Sharma S. “Iron deficiency and anemia”. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Science 2 (2012):101-107.
  26. Fan FS. “Iron deficiency anemia due to excessive green tea drinking”. Clinical Case Reports11 (2016):1053-1056.


Citation: Muamar MA Shaheen and Islam Hassouneh. “Determinants of Pre-Anemia among Healthy University Students". Acta Scientific Microbiology 3.6 (2020): 127-133.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US