Lawrence O Amadi*, Beremboba T Berembo and Samuel A Wemedo
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Lawrence O Amadi, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Received: February 18, 2020; Published: May 04, 2020
Background: Microbiological and Physicochemical properties of brackish water ecosystem is influenced by a lot of ecological and anthropogenic factors. These factors in turn impact on the distribution, productivity and microbial community as well as the integrity of the ecosystem.
Objective: Assessment of Microbiological and physicochemical properties of Krakrama (brackish) water in Rivers State.
Method: A 2-week sampling protocol at four different points along the brackish water course was carried out for three (May-July) months. Samples were analysed for Microbiological and Physicochemical parameters using standard analytical methods highlighted in the study.
Results: Physicochemical parameters ranged as follows pH (6.29 - 6.71), temperature (26.9 - 28.4℃), electrical conductivity (EC 950.77 - 1514.15 µS/cm), Nitrate (0.51 - 1.34 mg/mL) and salinity (16.20 - 22.50%) values were within statutory permissible limits, but total suspended solids (TSS 28.03-76.17) and total dissolved solids (TDS 570.8 - 915.30 mg/mL) were below whereas turbidity (30.80 - 40.00 NTU), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 9.68 - 15.20 mg/L), Chemical oxygen demand (COD 154.2 - 214 mg/mL), dissolved oxygen (DO 5.19 - 6.65 mg/L) and phosphate exceeded the acceptable limits though most of them do not directly apply to brackish water. In contrast, fifteen (15) genera of bacteria were identified and six (6) genera of fungi. Total heterotrophic bacterial counts (THBCs) ranged from 6.65 ± 0.1-6.92 ± 0.1 x 104 CFU/mL as highest and least total Shigella-Salmonella counts (TSSCs 3.82 ± 0.1 x 101 CFU/mL). Total faecal/thermotolerant coliform bacteria ranged from 900-≥1600/100 mL whereas total fungal counts ranged from 2.12 ± 01 - 2.28 ± 0.1 x 102 with Penicillium being predominant. Of the isolates obtained Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as Candida albicans, Fusarium and Aspergillus niger are known aetiologic agents of various human and animal pathologies.
Conclusion: The water samples revealed elevated levels of physicochemical parameters and requires continuous surveillance due to natural and anthropogenic activities. The microbial community is diverse with high incidence of faecal coliforms and opportunistic pathogens rendering the water unfit for recreation and consumption.
Keywords: Anthropogenic; Faecal Coliforms; Physicochemical Parameter; Brackish Water; Microbial Community
Citation: Lawrence O Amadi.,et al. “Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties of Krakrama (Brackish) Water in Rivers State, Niger Delta, Nigeria".Acta Scientific Microbiology 3.5 (2020): 123-132.
Copyright: © 2020 Lawrence O Amadi.,et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.