Acta Scientific Microbiology (ASMI) (ISSN: 2581-3226)

Research Article Volume 3 Issue 5

Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties of Krakrama (Brackish) Water in Rivers State, Niger Delta, Nigeria

Lawrence O Amadi*, Beremboba T Berembo and Samuel A Wemedo

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Lawrence O Amadi, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Received: February 18, 2020; Published: May 04, 2020



Background: Microbiological and Physicochemical properties of brackish water ecosystem is influenced by a lot of ecological and anthropogenic factors. These factors in turn impact on the distribution, productivity and microbial community as well as the integrity of the ecosystem.

Objective: Assessment of Microbiological and physicochemical properties of Krakrama (brackish) water in Rivers State.

Method: A 2-week sampling protocol at four different points along the brackish water course was carried out for three (May-July) months. Samples were analysed for Microbiological and Physicochemical parameters using standard analytical methods highlighted in the study.

Results: Physicochemical parameters ranged as follows pH (6.29 - 6.71), temperature (26.9 - 28.4℃), electrical conductivity (EC 950.77 - 1514.15 µS/cm), Nitrate (0.51 - 1.34 mg/mL) and salinity (16.20 - 22.50%) values were within statutory permissible limits, but total suspended solids (TSS 28.03-76.17) and total dissolved solids (TDS 570.8 - 915.30 mg/mL) were below whereas turbidity (30.80 - 40.00 NTU), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 9.68 - 15.20 mg/L), Chemical oxygen demand (COD 154.2 - 214 mg/mL), dissolved oxygen (DO 5.19 - 6.65 mg/L) and phosphate exceeded the acceptable limits though most of them do not directly apply to brackish water. In contrast, fifteen (15) genera of bacteria were identified and six (6) genera of fungi. Total heterotrophic bacterial counts (THBCs) ranged from 6.65 ± 0.1-6.92 ± 0.1 x 104 CFU/mL as highest and least total Shigella-Salmonella counts (TSSCs 3.82 ± 0.1 x 101 CFU/mL). Total faecal/thermotolerant coliform bacteria ranged from 900-≥1600/100 mL whereas total fungal counts ranged from 2.12 ± 01 - 2.28 ± 0.1 x 102 with Penicillium being predominant. Of the isolates obtained Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as Candida albicans, Fusarium and Aspergillus niger are known aetiologic agents of various human and animal pathologies.

Conclusion: The water samples revealed elevated levels of physicochemical parameters and requires continuous surveillance due to natural and anthropogenic activities. The microbial community is diverse with high incidence of faecal coliforms and opportunistic pathogens rendering the water unfit for recreation and consumption.

Keywords: Anthropogenic; Faecal Coliforms; Physicochemical Parameter; Brackish Water; Microbial Community



  1. Patil PN., et al. “Physico-chemical parameters for testing of water – A review”. International Journal of Environmental Sciences 3 (2012): 1194-1207.
  2. Onojake MC., et al. “Surface water characteristics and trace metals level of the Bonny/New Calabar River Estuary, Niger Delta, Nigeria”. Applied Water Science 7 (2017): 951-959.
  3. Amadi LO and Efiuvwevwere BJO. “Seasonal variations in physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of Ogodogbo creek, Niger Delta Nigeria”. International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy 2 (2015): 94-106.
  4. Titilawo Y., et al. “Physicochemical properties and Total Coliform Distribution of Selected Rivers in Osun State, South western Nigeria”. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 6 (2019): 4417-4428.
  5. Parmar TK., et al. “Bioindicators: the natural indicator of environmental pollution”. Frontiers in Life Science 2 (2016): 110-118.
  6. Edokpayi JN., et al. “Evaluation of Microbiological and Physicochemical Parameters of Alternative Source of Drinking Water: A Case Study of Nzhelele River, South Africa”. The Open Microbiology Journal 12 (2018): 18-27.
  7. World Health Organization. “Guidelines for safe recreational water environments: Coastal and fresh waters”. World Health Organization (2004): 1.
  8. Omonigho SE., et al. “Microbiological and Physicochemical Analysis of Orogodo River, Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria”. International Journal of Ecological Science and Environmental Engineering 2 (2018): 34-42.
  9. World Health Organization (WHO). “Guidelines for drinking-water quality, fourth edition. Recommendations”. WHO Press Geneva Switzerland 1 (2011).
  10. Nthunya LN., et al. “Spectroscopic Determination of Water Salinity in Brackish Surface Water in Nandoni Dam, at Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa”. Water 990 (2018): 1-13.
  11. Cucci G., et al. “Leaching effect of rainfall on soil under four-year saline water irrigation”. Soil and Water Research 11 (2016): 181-189.
  12. Efiuvwevwere BJO and Amadi LO. “Effects of Preservatives on the Bacteriological, chemical and sensory qualities of mangrove oyster (Crassostrea gasar) harvested from the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria”. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology1 (2015): 76-84.
  13. Woke GN and Umesi N. “Comparative Study of Sediments Samples from Brackish and Fresh Water in the Lower Niger Delta, Nigeria”. International Journal of Research in Agriculture and Forestry 5 (2018): 1-7.
  14. Bryanskaya AV., et al. “The role of environmental factors for the composition of microbial communities of saline lakes in the Novosibirsk region (Russia)”. BMC Microbiology1.4 (2016): 1-14.
  15. Veerendra kumar M., et al. “Physico-chemical parameters and bacterial abundance in coastal water of Visakhapatnam, Bay of Bengal India, with special reference to Pseudomonas sp. and Vibrio sp”. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences 08 (2017): 1588-1595.
  16. American Public Health Association (APHA). “Standard methods for Examination of water and wastewater”. 21st Edition, APHA, Washington D.C. (2005).
  17. “Standard Methods for the examination of water and wastewater”. 19th edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC (1992).
  18. Horiba Instruction Manual. “Water Quality checker U-10”. 2nd Tokyo, Japan (1991): 54-67.
  19. Tortora GJ., et al. “Microbiology; An Introduction”. 5th The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. 390 Bridge Parkway, USA 723 (1995): 159-161.
  20. Harrigan EF and McCane ME. “Laboratory Methods in Food and Diary Microbiology”. Academic Press London 5 (1990).
  21. Sneath PHA., et al. “Bergey’s Manual of Systemic Bacteriology”. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, USA. 2 (1986).
  22. Forbes BA., et al., “Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology”. International edition. 12th Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier, Inc., USA (2007).
  23. Cheesbrough M. “District laboratory practices in Tropical countries”. Volume 2 Part 2. Cambridge University Press, UK (2006).
  24. Müller JD., et al. “Metrology for pH Measurements in Brackish Waters-Part 1: Extending Electrochemical pHT Measurements of TRIS Buffers to Salinities 5-20”. Frontiers Marine Science 176 (2018):1-12.
  25. Olatunji MK. “Assessment of water quality in Asa River (Nigeria) and its indigenous Clarias gariepinus Fish”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8 (2011): 4332-4352.
  26. Azhar M., et al. “Soil and water quality parameters of Brackish water shrimp farms of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra”. Asian Journal of Animal science 2 (2016): 107-110.
  27. United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). “Ambient aquatic life water quality criteria for dissolved oxygen (saltwater): Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras” (2000).
  28. Naubi I., et al. “Effectiveness of Water Quality Index for Monitoring Malaysian Water Quality Index”. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 25 (2016): 231.
  29. Ayedun H., et al. “Assessment of groundwater contamination by toxic metals in Ifo, Southwestern Nigeria”. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 4 (2011): 820.
  30. Abowei JFN. “Salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and surface water temperature conditions in Nkoro River, Niger Delta, Nigeria”. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 1(2010): 16-21.
  31. El-Amier YA., et al. “Assessment of the Physicochemical Characteristics of water and sediment in Rosetta Branch, Egypt”. Journal of Water Resource and Protection 7 (2015): 1075-1086.
  32. Rusydi AF. “Correlation between conductivity and total dissolved solid in various type of water: A review”. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 118 (2018): 012019.
  33. Omonona AO., et al. “Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of water samples from Borgu sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria”. International Journal of Environmental Research 2 (2019): 1-15.
  34. Sivakumar S., et al. “Estimation of carbon stock in above Ground biomass, In: Muthupet Mangrove, Southeast coast of India’’. IJIAREC 2 (2011): 139-150.
  35. Oladiji AT., et al. “Toxicological evaluation of surface water of Amilegbe River using rats”. Niger Socical Exper Biochemical 16 (2004): 94-101.
  36. Rajesh J., et al. “Environmental Impacts Assesssment of Brackish water Aquaculture Activity in Nagapattinam Region, South East coast of India”. Journal of Environmental and Analytical Toxicology 3 (2016): 1-11.
  37. Tarus JS., et al. “Analysis of Nitrates and Phosphates in drinking water samples collected from Tea growing Community, Nandi Hills, Kenya”. Chemical Science International Journal3 (2017): 1-8.
  38. Odjadjare EEO and Okoh AI. “Physicochemical quality of an urban municipal wastewater effluent and its impact on the receiving environment”. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 170 (2010): 394.
  39. Nyamangara J., et al. “Long term nitrate and phosphate loading river water in the Upper Manyane catchment, Zimbabwe”. Water SA 39 (2013): 637.
  40. Dube T., et al. “An assessment of the effect of industrial and sewage effluent on aquatic invertebrates: A case study of a Southern urban stream, Zimbabwe”. Journal of Sustainable Development 3 (2010): 210-214.
  41. Iwar RT., et al. “Temporal Variations in the Characteristics of Pre-treated Effluents from a Brewery in Makurdi Metropolis-Nigeria”. American Journal of Environmental Protection 2 (2016): 55-60.
  42. Fadiran AO., et al. “A comparative study of the phosphate levels in some surface and ground water bodies of Swaziland”. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia 2 (2008): 197-206.
  43. Obire O., et al. “The Bacteriological water quality of Elechi Creek in Port Harcourt”. Nigeria Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management 1 (2005): 79-84.
  44. Javed F., et al. “Effects of Seasonal Variations on Physicochemical Properties and Concentrations of Faecal coliform in RiverKabul”. World Applied Sciences Journal 1 (2014): 142-149.
  45. Rochelle-Newall E., et al. “A short review of faecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions”. Front Microbiology 6 (2015): 308.
  46. Ferrer N., et al. “What are the main factors influencing the presence of faecal bacteria pollution in groundwater systems in developing countries?” Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 228 (2020): 103556.


Citation: Lawrence O Amadi.,et al. “Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties of Krakrama (Brackish) Water in Rivers State, Niger Delta, Nigeria".Acta Scientific Microbiology 3.5 (2020): 123-132.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US